Permanent residents (PRs) of Canada must carry and present their valid PR card or permanent resident travel document (PRTD) when boarding a flight to Canada, or travelling to Canada on any other commercial carrier. If you do not carry your PR card or PRTD, you may not be able to board your flight, train, bus or boat to Canada.
It is your responsibility to ensure that your PR card is still valid when you return from travel outside Canada, and to apply for a new PR card when your current card expires. If your PR card expires, it does not mean you have lost permanent resident status.
A person in Canada temporarily, like a student or foreign worker, is not a permanent resident.
Someone who makes a refugee claim in Canada does not become a permanent resident at that time. To become one, the Immigration and Refugee Board must first approve their claim. Then, they must apply for and get permanent resident status.
The permanent resident (PR) card
If you travel outside Canada, the PR card is your proof that you are a permanent resident of Canada. If you leave Canada, you will need this card to re-enter the country on a commercial vehicle, like an airplane, boat, train or bus.
Canadian permanent residents need to show their permanent resident card when travelling to Canada in order to prove their permanent resident status. Permanent residents who do not have a PR card, or who are not carrying their PR card when travelling outside the country, will need to obtain a permanent resident travel document before returning to Canada by air mode in order to comply with eTA requirements.
If your PR card expires, it does not mean you have lost permanent resident status.
What permanent residents can do
As a permanent resident, you have the right to:
- get most social benefits that Canadian citizens receive, including health care coverage,
- live, work or study anywhere in Canada,
- apply for Canadian citizenship,
- protection under Canadian law and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
You must pay taxes and respect all Canadian laws at the federal, provincial and municipal levels.
What permanent residents cannot do
You are not allowed to:
- vote or run for political office,
- hold some jobs that need a high-level security clearance.
Time spent living in Canada
When you are a permanent resident, you can live outside of Canada, but must live in Canada for at least two years in a five-year period. If you live outside of Canada for longer, you may lose your permanent resident status.
For more information on how long you have to live in Canada, see Appendix A: Residency obligation of the PR card application package.
Losing your permanent resident status
You don’t lose your permanent resident status when your PR card expires. You can only lose your status if you go through an official process.
You can lose your permanent resident status if:
- an adjudicator determines you are no longer a permanent resident after an inquiry or PRTD appeal;
- you voluntarily renounce your permanent resident status;
- a removal order is made against you and comes into force; or
- you become a Canadian citizen.
Even if you don't meet the residency obligation, you are still a PR until an official decision is made on your status.
Voluntarily giving up (renouncing) permanent resident status
Losing your permanent resident status does not happen automatically.
There may come a time when you no longer want to be a permanent resident of Canada. If so, you can apply to voluntarily give up (renounce) your permanent resident status.
For example, if you:
- know you have not met your residency obligations by being outside of Canada for a long period of time, and
- would like to visit Canada, and
- do not want to wait for a visa officer to do a formal assessment of your permanent resident status
- would like to avoid processing delays at the Port of Entry
You may not be able to enter Canada until your permanent resident status is resolved either by receiving a permanent resident travel document or by voluntarily giving up your permanent resident status.
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