Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Calgary—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower the more recent the arrival

Very recent immigrants are not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. The difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is 14% for women and 10% for men. Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is more similar to that of the Canadian-born. A pattern of adjustment to and an increasing involvement of immigrants in the Canadian labour market with longer stay are evident in all three age groups, for both men and women. Earlier immigrant women in the 45 to 64 age group do not quite reach the level of participation of the Canadian-born, but those aged 25 to 44 have fully caught up. Young persons who immigrated before 1986 are more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born of the same age. This last group accounts for only a very small portion of earlier immigrants.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 41,190 105,110 53,680 199,980
Immigrants 5,550 29,810 22,520 57,870
 Immigrated before 1986 1,230 12,170 16,680 30,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,840 11,150 4,350 18,330
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,470 6,490 1,500 9,460
Men
Canadian-born 45,360 122,350 63,330 231,030
Immigrants 5,780 32,140 28,460 66,370
 Immigrated before 1986 1,200 14,100 21,630 36,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,120 11,200 4,720 19,040
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,450 6,840 2,110 10,400
Total
Canadian-born 86,550 227,450 117,010 431,010
Immigrants 11,320 61,950 50,980 124,240
 Immigrated before 1986 2,430 26,270 38,320 67,020
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5,970 22,350 9,060 37,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,920 13,330 3,610 19,860

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 73% 84% 74% 79% 199,980
Immigrants 64% 78% 69% 73% 57,870
 Immigrated before 1986 83% 84% 70% 75% 30,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 65% 78% 68% 73% 18,330
 Immigrated 1996-2001 52% 70% 62% 65% 9,460
Men
Canadian-born 76% 95% 88% 89% 231,030
Immigrants 63% 92% 87% 86% 66,370
 Immigrated before 1986 79% 94% 88% 90% 36,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 63% 92% 86% 84% 19,040
 Immigrated 1996-2001 54% 88% 81% 79% 10,400
Total
Canadian-born 74% 90% 81% 84% 431,010
Immigrants 64% 85% 78% 79% 124,240
 Immigrated before 1986 81% 89% 79% 83% 67,020
 Immigrated 1986-1995 64% 84% 76% 78% 37,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 53% 78% 72% 72% 19,860

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Labour force participation was generally higher for most cohorts in the 2001 Census than in the 1996 Census. The young and old age cohorts showed greater gains than the middle age cohorts. Participation increased most among the very recent immigrant cohort: by four percentage points for very recent immigrant women, compared to one percentage point for other female groups, and three percentage points for very recent immigrant men, compared to zero to two percentage points for other male groups. Older very recent immigrants, both male and female, saw substantial gains.

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-1, Women

Figure D-1, Men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education, the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants, with one major exception: men who immigrated after 1986 and who at the time of the 2001 Census had only attended elementary school had a higher participation rate than those with some high school.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College
or trade diploma
University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,070 36,140 51,430 66,770 44,560 199,980
Immigrants 3,150 8,920 12,680 17,930 15,200 57,870
 Immigrated before 1986 1,450 4,610 6,380 10,480 7,190 30,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,260 3,170 4,490 5,160 4,270 18,330
 Immigrated 1996-2001 450 1,160 1,810 2,320 3,750 9,460
Men
Canadian-born 2,560 47,600 54,420 74,170 52,280 231,030
Immigrants 3,010 10,490 12,310 20,440 20,110 66,370
 Immigrated before 1986 1,450 5,460 6,120 13,190 10,670 36,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,120 3,650 4,460 5,150 4,680 19,040
 Immigrated 1996-2001 430 1,390 1,730 2,090 4,770 10,400
Total
Canadian-born 3,640 83,750 105,850 140,950 96,830 431,010
Immigrants 6,160 19,420 24,980 38,370 35,320 124,240
 Immigrated before 1986 2,920 10,050 12,510 23,660 17,850 67,020
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,360 6,820 8,940 10,290 8,960 37,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 870 2,550 3,540 4,400 8,520 19,860

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Less
than grade 9
Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 42% 64% 81% 84% 86% 79%
Immigrants 52% 64% 72% 78% 80% 73%
 Immigrated before 1986 52% 68% 76% 79% 83% 75%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 54% 63% 72% 80% 83% 73%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 44% 52% 61% 74% 72% 65%
Men
Canadian-born 67% 77% 91% 94% 94% 89%
Immigrants 76% 76% 85% 91% 91% 86%
 Immigrated before 1986 74% 86% 90% 91% 92% 90%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 79% 71% 82% 93% 93% 84%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 74% 57% 76% 88% 88% 79%
Total
Canadian-born 57% 71% 86% 89% 90% 84%
Immigrants 61% 70% 78% 85% 86% 79%
 Immigrated before 1986 62% 77% 83% 85% 88% 83%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 63% 67% 77% 86% 88% 78%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 55% 54% 67% 80% 80% 72%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

As well, immigrants with little schooling, even very recent immigrants, are equally or more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born with a low level of education. But at all other education levels there was a common pattern of relatively low participation rates for very recently landed immigrants and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born for earlier cohorts.

Participation rates have generally increased since 1996. Recent immigrant women with post-secondary credentials and recent immigrant men and women without a high school diploma showed relatively larger gains, in the order of three percentage points. The higher labour force participation of very recent immigrants in 2000 compared to 1995—three percentage points for men and four percentage points for women—derives both from higher participation across the spectrum of education levels and an increase in the share of persons with post-secondary training.

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-2, Women

Figure D-2, Men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Knowledge of English important for labour force participation

Most immigrants report that they have knowledge of either English or French when they immigrate to Canada. As reported at the time of the 2001 Census, the large majority of both men and women who immigrated during the 1990s and settled in Calgary have knowledge of English. Those who do not report having knowledge of English are not nearly as active in the labour market as those who do.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Population Labour force
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 199,870 199,980
Immigrants 4,440 2,170 55,710 57,870
 Immigrated before 1986 910 470 29,590 30,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,910 910 17,430 18,330
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,610 780 8,680 9,460
Men
Canadian-born 230,940 231,030
Immigrants 2,440 1,810 64,540 66,370
 Immigrated before 1986 570 450 36,490 36,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,110 890 18,160 19,040
 Immigrated 1996-2001 730 490 9,920 10,400
Total
Canadian-born 430,810 431,010
Immigrants 6,880 3,980 120,260 124,240
 Immigrated before 1986 1,490 930 66,080 67,020
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,030 1,800 35,580 37,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,360 1,290 18,600 19,860

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by knowledge of English and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Population share Labour force
participation rate
  No
English
No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 79% 79%
Immigrants 6% 49% 74% 73%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 52% 76% 75%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8% 48% 75% 73%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 48% 67% 65%
Men
Canadian-born 89% 89%
Immigrants 3% 74% 87% 86%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 79% 90% 90%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 80% 85% 84%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 67% 80% 79%
Total
Canadian-born 84% 84%
Immigrants 4% 58% 80% 79%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 62% 83% 83%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 60% 80% 78%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 55% 74% 72%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Unemployment not uncommon during initial years

Immigrants who are in their initial years in Calgary are more likely to experience unemployment than those who have been in the country for a longer period of time. For instance, very recently immigrated men in Calgary experienced unemployment rates from 6% to 9%, depending on their age group, and women experienced rates of 7% to 10%, depending on their age group. Unemployment is significantly lower among persons who immigrated before 1996, except in the 15-24 age group.

The unemployment rate among various age and gender cohorts was generally lower in 2001 than in 1996, mostly by one or two percentage points.

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,730 4,230 1,750 9,700
Immigrants 540 1,810 860 3,210
 Immigrated before 1986 90 470 560 1,110
 Immigrated 1986-1995 330 700 210 1,230
 Immigrated 1996-2001 130 630 100 860
Men
Canadian-born 4,810 4,370 2,130 11,300
Immigrants 740 1,470 1,010 3,220
 Immigrated before 1986 160 450 650 1,250
 Immigrated 1986-1995 460 500 230 1,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 140 530 140 800
Total
Canadian-born 8,530 8,590 3,880 20,990
Immigrants 1,280 3,280 1,870 6,420
 Immigrated before 1986 240 920 1,210 2,370
 Immigrated 1986-1995 780 1,210 430 2,420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 270 1,160 230 1,650

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 9% 4% 3% 5% 9,700
Immigrants 10% 6% 4% 6% 3,210
 Immigrated before 1986 7% 4% 3% 4% 1,110
 Immigrated 1986-1995 11% 6% 5% 7% 1,230
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 10% 7% 9% 860
Men
Canadian-born 11% 4% 3% 5% 11,300
Immigrants 13% 5% 4% 5% 3,220
 Immigrated before 1986 13% 3% 3% 3% 1,250
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15% 4% 5% 6% 1,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 8% 6% 8% 800
Total
Canadian-born 10% 4% 3% 5% 20,990
Immigrants 11% 5% 4% 5% 6,420
 Immigrated before 1986 10% 4% 3% 4% 2,370
 Immigrated 1986-1995 13% 5% 5% 6% 2,420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 9% 6% 8% 1,650

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 100 2,520 2,750 2,690 1,630 9,700
Immigrants 190 570 770 780 900 3,210
 Immigrated before 1986 70 210 290 380 230 1,110
 Immigrated 1986-1995 100 270 380 230 260 1,230
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50 110 120 180 430 860
Men
Canadian-born 200 3,600 3,110 2,740 1,650 11,300
Immigrants 190 600 770 830 850 3,220
 Immigrated before 1986 90 200 290 450 240 1,250
 Immigrated 1986-1995 80 300 390 240 200 1,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 20 120 110 150 410 800
Total
Canadian-born 290 6,120 5,870 5,440 3,280 20,990
Immigrants 380 1,180 1,530 1,600 1,750 6,420
 Immigrated before 1986 160 400 550 820 460 2,370
 Immigrated 1986-1995 170 540 760 470 470 2,420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 60 220 230 320 840 1,650

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Generally, earlier immigrant cohorts have lower unemployment rates than more recent immigrant cohorts in Calgary at all levels of education. For instance, men who immigrated after 1996 and who have a university degree have an unemployment rate of 9%. The rate drops to 4% for men who landed between 1986 and 1995 and 2% for earlier male immigrants. This pattern does not hold for recent immigrant women with a high school diploma and recent immigrant men with a high school education or less. In these education groups, very recent immigrants have lower unemployment rates than earlier immigrants with the same levels of education.

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by level of education and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 9% 7% 5% 4% 4% 5%
Immigrants 6% 6% 6% 4% 6% 6%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 5% 4% 4% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8% 8% 8% 4% 6% 7%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 10% 7% 8% 11% 9%
Men
Canadian-born 8% 8% 6% 4% 3% 5%
Immigrants 6% 6% 6% 4% 4% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 6% 4% 5% 3% 2% 3%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 8% 9% 5% 4% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3% 8% 6% 7% 9% 8%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 7% 6% 4% 3% 5%
Immigrants 6% 6% 6% 4% 5% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 4% 4% 3% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 8% 9% 5% 5% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 9% 7% 7% 10% 8%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Recent immigrant women experience more unemployment than recent immigrant men, irrespective of their education level. The gap between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is also slightly larger for women than for men at any level of education.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Labour force Unemployed
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 9,680 9,700
Immigrants 2,170 140 3,060 3,210
 Immigrated before 1986 470 20 1,090 1,110
 Immigrated 1986-1995 910 70 1,170 1,230
 Immigrated 1996-2001 780 50 820 860
Men
Canadian-born 11,280 11,300
Immigrants 1,810 120 3,100 3,220
 Immigrated before 1986 450 30 1,240 1,250
 Immigrated 1986-1995 890 80 1,120 1,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 490 30 770 800
Total
Canadian-born 20,980 20,990
Immigrants 3,980 260 6,170 6,420
 Immigrated before 1986 930 50 2,330 2,370
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,800 140 2,270 2,420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,290 80 1,580 1,650

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

All cohorts except recent immigrant men with a high school diploma had the same or lower unemployment rates in 2001 than in 1996. The unemployment rate declined noticeably for recent and very recent immigrant women at all levels of education as well as for very recent immigrant men with an elementary education.

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by knowledge of English and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Share of labour force Unemployment rate
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 5% 5%
Immigrants 4% 6% 5% 6%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 4% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 7% 7% 7%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 6% 9% 9%
Men
Canadian-born 5% 5%
Immigrants 3% 7% 5% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 7% 3% 3%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 8% 6% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 6% 8% 8%
Total
Canadian-born 5% 5%
Immigrants 3% 7% 5% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 5% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 8% 6% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 6% 8% 8%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Recent immigrants who report knowledge of English are about as likely to be unemployed as those who do not report knowledge of English.

Share of men and women with jobs increases with length of stay

Six in ten very recent immigrant women aged 15 to 64 are employed, compared to three in four Canadian-born women. For men the difference is smaller: nearly three in four very recent immigrants are employed compared to more than eight in ten Canadian-born men. As shown in the previous pages, these differences in employment rates reflect mainly differences in labour force participation rates.

Table D-13: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 37,470 100,880 51,930 190,280
Immigrants 5,010 28,000 21,660 54,670
 Immigrated before 1986 1,160 11,700 16,120 28,970
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,520 10,450 4,140 17,100
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,340 5,860 1,400 8,600
Men
Canadian-born 40,560 117,980 61,200 219,740
Immigrants 5,040 30,670 27,450 63,150
 Immigrated before 1986 1,050 13,650 20,990 35,690
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,670 10,700 4,490 17,860
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,320 6,320 1,970 9,610
Total
Canadian-born 78,020 218,860 113,130 410,010
Immigrants 10,040 58,670 49,110 117,810
 Immigrated before 1986 2,200 25,350 37,100 64,640
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5,190 21,150 8,630 34,960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,660 12,180 3,380 18,210

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-14: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 66% 81% 72% 75% 190,280
Immigrants 58% 73% 66% 69% 54,670
 Immigrated before 1986 78% 80% 68% 73% 28,970
 Immigrated 1986-1995 57% 73% 64% 68% 17,100
 Immigrated 1996-2001 48% 63% 58% 59% 8,600
Men
Canadian-born 68% 92% 85% 84% 219,740
Immigrants 55% 88% 84% 82% 63,150
 Immigrated before 1986 69% 91% 85% 87% 35,690
 Immigrated 1986-1995 54% 88% 82% 79% 17,860
 Immigrated 1996-2001 49% 81% 75% 73% 9,610
Total
Canadian-born 67% 86% 79% 80% 410,010
Immigrants 56% 80% 75% 75% 117,810
 Immigrated before 1986 73% 86% 76% 80% 64,640
 Immigrated 1986-1995 56% 80% 73% 73% 34,960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 48% 71% 67% 66% 18,210

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Among immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is more common than among the more recently landed. For men and women aged 25 to 44 and 45 to 64, the employment rate of immigrants who landed before 1986 is zero to four percentage points lower than the employment rate of the Canadian-born.

In 2001, the share of people with jobs was the same or higher among all cohorts than in 1996. The changes were greater for the younger and older cohorts than for those at prime working age; most immigrant cohorts experienced a greater change than the Canadian-born experienced. Older very recent immigrants, both men and women, saw the greatest gains, with growth of 11 and 18 percentage points respectively, compared with zero to eight percentage points in all other categories.

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs more common for very recent immigrants aged 25 to 64

The proportion of employed persons who work part-time varies considerably by age and gender, both for immigrants and the Canadian-born. Half of employed young adults work part-time. Between one-fifth to one-third of employed immigrant women aged 25 to 64 (varying by cohort) work part-time, compared to one-quarter of employed Canadian-born women. In contrast, 5% to 11% of employed immigrant men aged 25 to 64 (varying by cohort) and 5% of employed Canadian-born men work part-time.

Table D-15: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 23,910 25,740 13,760 63,400
Immigrants 3,180 6,770 5,710 15,650
 Immigrated before 1986 690 2,790 4,330 7,800
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,900 2,630 930 5,460
 Immigrated 1996-1999 590 1,360 450 2,400
Men
Canadian-born 21,390 6,060 4,020 31,470
Immigrants 2,940 1,870 1,950 6,750
 Immigrated before 1986 450 740 1,440 2,620
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,810 720 330 2,850
 Immigrated 1996-1999 690 410 180 1,280
Total
Canadian-born 45,290 31,800 17,780 94,870
Immigrants 6,110 8,650 7,640 22,400
 Immigrated before 1986 1,140 3,540 5,760 10,440
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,690 3,350 1,260 8,290
 Immigrated 1996-1999 1,280 1,770 630 3,670

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Table D-16: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed working mostly part-time, by age and gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 53% 23% 24% 30%
Immigrants 58% 23% 24% 27%
 Immigrated before 1986 53% 22% 25% 25%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 63% 22% 21% 28%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 51% 27% 34% 32%
Men
Canadian-born 44% 5% 6% 13%
Immigrants 49% 6% 7% 10%
 Immigrated before 1986 34% 5% 7% 7%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 52% 6% 7% 15%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 55% 8% 11% 16%
Total
Canadian-born 48% 14% 15% 21%
Immigrants 53% 14% 15% 18%
 Immigrated before 1986 44% 13% 15% 15%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 57% 14% 14% 21%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 54% 18% 21% 24%

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Part-time employment is more common for very recent immigrants of either gender and aged 25 to 44 or 45 to 64 than for other population groups, but this is not so for those aged 15 to 24.

The prevalence of part-time employment was somewhat lower in 2001 than in 1996 for the 25 to 44 and 45 to 64 age groups. The very recent immigrant young male cohort saw an increase in part-time employment in 2001, as compared to 1996.

Many recent immigrants in sales and service and processing occupations

Employed immigrant women are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in sales and service and processing jobs. One in three employed recent immigrant women work in sales and service jobs, compared to two in ten Canadian-born women. For recent immigrant men, processing occupations are an important area of employment, but the share of jobs in sales and service occupations is only slightly higher than for the Canadian-born. By contrast, administrative, management and social occupations, which are favoured by the Canadian-born, account for a smaller share of the jobs of earlier and recent immigrants.

Table D-17: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups by gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Process-
ing
Adminis-
trative
Manage-
ment and social sciences
Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 29,140 3,110 55,720 39,760 3,130 21,970 152,810
Immigrants 14,700 3,420 13,230 9,710 1,260 7,360 49,660
 Immigrated before 1986 6,990 1,160 8,820 6,200 670 3,980 27,810
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5,030 1,540 3,120 2,270 470 2,160 14,590
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,690 730 1,290 1,230 120 1,220 7,260
Men
Canadian-born 26,110 10,170 19,680 47,030 44,890 31,320 179,180
Immigrants 9,620 5,910 4,900 11,920 13,360 12,420 58,110
 Immigrated before 1986 5,550 2,420 3,180 8,340 8,050 7,120 34,640
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,620 2,340 1,110 2,340 3,900 2,910 15,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,460 1,160 620 1,250 1,410 2,410 8,300
Total
Canadian-born 55,240 13,270 75,390 86,770 48,030 53,280 331,990
Immigrants 24,310 9,320 18,120 21,630 14,620 19,780 107,770
 Immigrated before 1986 12,530 3,580 11,990 14,540 8,720 11,100 62,440
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7,650 3,870 4,220 4,600 4,370 5,060 29,780
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,150 1,880 1,900 2,480 1,530 3,620 15,550
 
Women
Canadian-born 19% 2% 36% 26% 2% 14% 152,810
Immigrants 30% 7% 27% 20% 3% 15% 49,660
 Immigrated before 1986 25% 4% 32% 22% 2% 14% 27,810
 Immigrated 1986-1995 34% 11% 21% 16% 3% 15% 14,590
 Immigrated 1996-2001 37% 10% 18% 17% 2% 17% 7,260
Men
Canadian-born 15% 6% 11% 26% 25% 17% 179,180
Immigrants 17% 10% 8% 21% 23% 21% 58,110
 Immigrated before 1986 16% 7% 9% 24% 23% 21% 34,640
 Immigrated 1986-1995 17% 15% 7% 15% 26% 19% 15,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 18% 14% 7% 15% 17% 29% 8,300
Total
Canadian-born 17% 4% 23% 26% 14% 16% 331,990
Immigrants 23% 9% 17% 20% 14% 18% 107,770
 Immigrated before 1986 20% 6% 19% 23% 14% 18% 62,440
 Immigrated 1986-1995 26% 13% 14% 15% 15% 17% 29,780
 Immigrated 1996-2001 27% 12% 12% 16% 10% 23% 15,550

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-3, Women

Figure D-3, Men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The distribution of occupations of very recent immigrants is quite similar to that of earlier cohorts, with a few exceptions: a higher proportion of very recent immigrants than earlier immigrants work in health and science fields, especially among male immigrants, and a much lower proportion work in trades and transport occupations. The proportion of very recent immigrants employed in health and science fields is also significantly higher than the proportion of the Canadian-born in these fields. This is something specific to the latest cohort, as five years earlier in the 1996 Census the prevalence of health and science occupations among employed immigrants was quite similar across all cohorts, including very recent immigrants.

Compared to 1996, sales and service and processing occupations have become much less important as a source of employment for the very recent immigrant cohort in 2001, with declines of 18% for women and 13% for men. Health and science occupations and management and social occupations became more important for the very recent immigrant cohort.

Many very recent immigrants in manufacturing and hospitality sectors

In Calgary, relative to the Canadian-born, a large proportion of employed recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 work in manufacturing industries and in hospitality and other services industries. By contrast, the construction and transportation industries and the public sector account for a smaller share of jobs of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born.

Compared to 1996, employment in business services industries and the public sector among the very recent immigrant cohort is more prevalent, and employment in hospitality and other services industries is less prevalent.

Table D-18: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Construc-
tion and Transpor-
tation
Trade Busi-
ness services
Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 16,800 14,930 22,310 33,810 47,940 17,040 152,820
Immigrants 6,830 2,920 6,490 9,220 13,600 10,610 49,660
 Immigrated before 1986 3,370 1,890 3,640 5,700 8,350 4,890 27,820
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,360 820 1,820 2,220 3,590 3,770 14,590
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,090 240 1,050 1,290 1,670 1,940 7,270
Men
Canadian-born 32,440 47,190 30,400 36,590 18,460 14,090 179,180
Immigrants 13,750 11,520 7,880 11,980 5,790 7,210 58,110
 Immigrated before 1986 7,040 7,380 4,860 7,360 3,980 4,050 34,630
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,470 2,990 1,980 2,500 1,150 2,130 15,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,220 1,170 1,060 2,150 670 1,030 8,290
Total
Canadian-born 49,240 62,130 52,720 70,420 66,380 31,120 331,990
Immigrants 20,590 14,440 14,360 21,190 19,380 17,810 107,770
 Immigrated before 1986 10,460 9,240 8,490 13,030 12,300 8,960 62,450
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6,830 3,800 3,800 4,710 4,750 5,900 29,780
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,320 1,410 2,090 3,430 2,350 2,970 15,550
 
Women
Canadian-born 11% 10% 15% 22% 31% 11% 100%
Immigrants 14% 6% 13% 19% 27% 21% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 7% 13% 20% 30% 18% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 16% 6% 12% 15% 25% 26% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15% 3% 14% 18% 23% 27% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 18% 26% 17% 20% 10% 8% 100%
Immigrants 24% 20% 14% 21% 10% 12% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 20% 21% 14% 21% 11% 12% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 29% 20% 13% 16% 8% 14% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 27% 14% 13% 26% 8% 12% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 15% 19% 16% 21% 20% 9% 100%
Immigrants 19% 13% 13% 20% 18% 17% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 17% 15% 14% 21% 20% 14% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 23% 13% 13% 16% 16% 20% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 21% 9% 13% 22% 15% 19% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-4, Women

Figure D-4, Men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Skill requirements of jobs of recent immigrants lower

The jobs of recent immigrants require lower skills than the jobs of the Canadian-born. One in three jobs of Canadian-born women requires the highest level of skill, a university education. For immigrant women who landed after 1996, only one in four jobs requires a university education. There is a larger gap for women than for men between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born in the skill requirements of their jobs.

Table D-19: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High
school plus
job training
College
or trade
appren-ticeship
University Total
Women
Canadian-born 8,250 48,990 43,010 52,590 152,820
Immigrants 7,360 16,170 12,950 13,190 49,660
 Immigrated before 1986 3,000 8,570 7,880 8,390 27,820
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,780 5,100 3,550 3,160 14,590
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,580 2,510 1,520 1,660 7,270
Men
Canadian-born 11,330 39,470 58,100 70,270 179,180
Immigrants 5,380 13,440 18,360 20,930 58,110
 Immigrated before 1986 2,550 6,910 11,470 13,710 34,630
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,710 4,430 4,880 4,170 15,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,120 2,100 2,020 3,060 8,290
Total
Canadian-born 19,570 88,460 101,110 122,850 331,990
Immigrants 12,730 29,600 31,320 34,120 107,770
 Immigrated before 1986 5,540 15,470 19,350 22,080 62,450
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,500 9,530 8,430 7,320 29,770
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,700 4,600 3,540 4,720 15,550
 
Women
Canadian-born 5% 32% 28% 34% 100%
Immigrants 15% 33% 26% 27% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 31% 28% 30% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19% 35% 24% 22% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 22% 35% 21% 23% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 6% 22% 32% 39% 100%
Immigrants 9% 23% 32% 36% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 7% 20% 33% 40% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 11% 29% 32% 27% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 14% 25% 24% 37% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 6% 27% 30% 37% 100%
Immigrants 12% 27% 29% 32% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 25% 31% 35% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15% 32% 28% 25% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 17% 30% 23% 30% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

For both men and women, the skill requirement of jobs of immigrants who landed before 1986 is closer to that of the Canadian-born. The jobs of very recent immigrants and those of immigrants who landed during the 1986-1995 period have similar skill requirements.

Compared to 1996, the very recent immigrant cohort has jobs with higher skill requirements. The proportion of very recent immigrants with jobs requiring college, trade or university level education was more than 10 percentage points higher in 2001 than in 1996, for both men and women.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-5, Women

Figure D-5, Men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The information presented in Table D-19 does not directly indicate whether the skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels of jobs of employed recent immigrants with the level of education of employed recent immigrants. This is done in Table D-20 for persons holding a university degree.

Education of recent immigrants not fully utilized

The jobs of recent immigrants with a university degree do not require the same level of skill as the jobs of Canadian-born persons with a university degree. About seven in ten employed Canadian-born women with a university degree have a job requiring a university degree. But less than four in ten employed women with university degrees who immigrated after 1995 have a job that requires a university degree. As for men with a university degree, three in four Canadian-born men but only six in ten very recent immigrant men have a job requiring a university education.

The skill requirements of jobs of university graduates were higher in 2001 than in 1996, mainly in the form of a shift from jobs requiring no formal education or a high school diploma to jobs requiring a college or trade apprenticeship or a university education. For Canadian-born men and women, the shift was four percentage points; immigrants who had been in the country more than 15 years or from 5 to 15 years experienced a larger shift of four to eight points for men and two to three points for women. For immigrants who landed in the five years before the census, the shift from jobs requiring high school or less to jobs requiring college or trade apprenticeships or more was approximately four percentage points for men and seven percentage points for women.

Table D-20: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High
school plus
job training
College
or trade
apprenticeship
University Total
Women
Canadian-born 480 5,090 6,960 26,960 39,480
Immigrants 830 2,940 2,780 7,150 13,680
 Immigrated before 1986 170 1,040 1,200 4,300 6,700
 Immigrated 1986-1995 270 940 910 1,700 3,820
 Immigrated 1996-2001 380 970 670 1,140 3,150
Men
Canadian-born 680 3,580 7,030 37,000 48,300
Immigrants 650 2,220 3,130 12,970 18,970
 Immigrated before 1986 240 790 1,440 7,850 10,320
 Immigrated 1986-1995 140 670 910 2,620 4,330
 Immigrated 1996-2001 280 750 790 2,510 4,330
Total
Canadian-born 1,150 8,680 14,000 63,960 87,790
Immigrants 1,460 5,140 5,920 20,120 32,630
 Immigrated before 1986 400 1,820 2,640 12,150 17,020
 Immigrated 1986-1995 410 1,600 1,830 4,320 8,140
 Immigrated 1996-2001 660 1,720 1,460 3,650 7,480
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 13% 18% 68% 100%
Immigrants 6% 21% 20% 52% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 16% 18% 64% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 24% 24% 44% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 12% 31% 21% 36% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 1% 7% 15% 77% 100%
Immigrants 3% 12% 17% 68% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 8% 14% 76% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 15% 21% 60% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 17% 18% 58% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 1% 10% 16% 73% 100%
Immigrants 4% 16% 18% 62% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 11% 15% 71% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 20% 22% 53% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 23% 20% 49% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates with jobs requiring university education, by gender, Calgary Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Date Modified: