Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Edmonton—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part B: Who Are the Recent Immigrants?

Origin, immigration category and religion

Asian origins are prevalent among recent immigrants

Edmonton’s immigrants come from all over the world and represent a diversity of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Over the past several decades there has been a considerable change in the source countries of immigrants. In 2001, for example, there were 21,000 residents of Edmonton who had landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001. The most common country of birth for these immigrants was India, accounting for 12% of very recent immigrants, followed by China, which supplied 11% (15% if Hong Kong is included).

Table B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration—top ten countries of birth, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
All immigrants
Rank Country Number Share
1 United Kingdom 19,350 12%
2 China, People’s Republic of 11,150 7%
3 India 10,550 6%
4 Philippines 10,220 6%
5 Poland 9,580 6%
6 Viet Nam 9,340 6%
7 Germany 8,550 5%
8 United States 7,300 4%
9 Hong Kong 7,260 4%
10 Netherlands 5,110 3%
Top ten countries 98,410 60%
All other countries 66,830 40%
Total 165,240 100%
Immigrated before 1986
1 United Kingdom 16,890 17%
2 Germany 7,560 8%
3 Poland 5,450 5%
4 Viet Nam 5,310 5%
5 China, People’s Republic of 5,180 5%
6 United States 5,140 5%
7 Netherlands 4,830 5%
8 India 4,650 5%
9 Italy 3,900 4%
10 Hong Kong 3,370 3%
Top ten countries 62,280 62%
All other countries 37,780 38%
Total 100,060 100%
Immigrated 1986-1995
1 Philippines 4,650 11%
2 Poland 3,810 9%
3 China, People’s Republic of 3,570 8%
4 India 3,490 8%
5 Viet Nam 3,450 8%
6 Hong Kong 3,070 7%
7 United Kingdom 1,710 4%
8 United States 1,380 3%
9 El Salvador 1,350 3%
10 Lebanon 1,290 3%
Top ten countries 27,770 63%
All other countries 16,400 37%
Total 44,170 100%
Immigrated 1996-2001
1 India 2,420 12%
2 China, People’s Republic of 2,410 11%
3 Philippines 2,350 11%
4 Hong Kong 810 4%
5 United States 780 4%
6 United Kingdom 760 4%
7 Viet Nam 580 3%
8 Ukraine 550 3%
9 Korea, South 470 2%
10 Yugoslavia 430 2%
Top ten countries 11,560 55%
All other countries 9,450 45%
Total 21,010 100%

Among Edmonton’s earlier immigrants—those arriving in Canada before 1986—the United Kingdom and Germany were the most common countries of birth, together accounting for 25% of this group.

In general, the birth origins of Edmonton’s immigrant population vary in relation to the period of immigration. European birth origins are predominant among those who immigrated in the 1950s, the 1960s and, to a lesser extent, the 1970s, and Asian birth origins are more prevalent among those who immigrated in the 1980s and 1990s. Six of the top ten countries of birth of very recent immigrants are in Asia.

Edmonton’s share of Canada’s recent immigrants varies by country of birth

For some immigrant groups, Edmonton is a top destination. For example, of the 11,100 Fiji-born individuals who immigrated after 1985 and were living in Canada in 2001, 1,200 or 11% were living in Edmonton. Edmonton is also home to a large share of recent immigrants from Malaysia, Viet Nam and El Salvador. On average, 2.6% of recent immigrants chose Edmonton as their place of residence.

Table B-2: Recent immigrants in Canada by country of birth and percentage residing in Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
Country of Birth Total recent immigrants to Canada Share residing in Edmonton
Fiji 11,130 10.9%
Malaysia 12,280 6.9%
Viet Nam 72,330 5.6%
El Salvador 29,680 4.9%
Poland 91,140 4.5%
Germany 22,810 4.4%
Philippines 161,130 4.3%
Bosnia and Herzegovina 23,170 4.2%
Ukraine 25,530 4.1%
Ethiopia 12,080 3.9%
Lebanon 43,930 3.9%
Croatia 11,380 3.7%
United Kingdom 69,660 3.5%
South Africa, Republic of 19,890 3.4%
Guatemala 10,580 3.2%
All Canadian-born 23,991,910 3.2%
Total population 29,639,000 3.1%
All immigrants 5,448,490 3.0%
India 197,680 3.0%
United States 73,860 2.9%
All recent immigrants 2,491,850 2.6%
China, People’s Republic of 236,930 2.5%
Yugoslavia 35,860 2.4%
Hong Kong 168,770 2.3%
Somalia 18,220 2.1%
Romania 43,200 1.8%
Russian Federation 35,950 1.7%
Afghanistan 20,670 1.7%
Pakistan 64,020 1.6%
Iraq 22,300 1.6%
Syria 10,340 1.5%
Ghana 13,450 1.5%
Egypt 16,970 1.5%
Korea, South 50,970 1.4%
Peru 12,590 1.3%
Colombia 10,190 1.2%
Mexico 24,640 1.2%
Jamaica 48,760 1.1%
Iran 61,560 1.1%
Portugal 34,120 1.1%
Guyana 38,910 1.0%

Note: Table B-2 lists all countries that are the place of birth of at least 10,000 recent immigrants living in Canada in 2001, with Edmonton’s share being 1% or more.

Many economic immigrants among very recent immigrants

Statistics published by Citizenship and Immigration Canada show that the number of immigrants who reported Edmonton as their destination when they landed in Canada increased by 5,500 between the second half of the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s and decreased by 14,800 in the second half of the 1990s. The decline was concentrated in the family and refugee classes. Over one-half of very recent immigrants destined for Edmonton entered through the economic category.

Table B-3: Recent immigrants by period of immigration—landings by immigration category, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 1986-2000 (number and percentage distribution)
  1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000
Family class 10,900 36% 16,290 45% 7,390 35%
Economic immigrants 11,470 37% 14,250 40% 11,670 55%
Refugees 7,910 26% 4,650 13% 2,280 11%
Other immigrants 340 1% 870 2% 10 0%
Total 30,630 100% 36,060 100% 21,350 100%

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures, 2002 (data set).

Note: The 2001 Census did not ask immigrants about the immigration categories through which they were admitted to Canada. The information in Table B-3 was obtained from records at Citizenship and Immigration Canada and pertains to the time of landing. Immigration categories are described in the Glossary.

Within the family class, the number of sponsored spouses increased over the three five-year periods, and in the latest 1996-2000 period amounted to more than one-half of this category. The number of other relatives—parents and grandparents, sons and daughters and fiancés—fell sharply from about 9,000 during the 1991-1995 period to 3,000 during the 1996-2000 period.

As for refugees, both government-assisted and privately-sponsored refugees declined in number. Almost four thousand government-assisted refugees were destined to Edmonton when they landed during the 1986-1990 period, but only one-half that number were destined to Edmonton during the next five years. Only 300 privately-sponsored refugees entered in the second half of the 1990s, a small fraction of the 4,300 that entered in the second half of the 1980s.

Skilled workers and their dependants account for the lion’s share of economic immigrants, and there was a steady flow of new entrants in this category destined for Edmonton throughout the 1986-2000 period.

Religions changing with countries of origin

Recent immigrants have brought to Edmonton several religions that were virtually absent before 1986. While nearly one-half of very recent immigrants are Christians, the shares adhering to the Muslim, Sikh and Hindu faiths are higher than among earlier immigrants. Buddhists make up a small share of very recent immigrants. Among the Canadian-born, none of these four non-Christian religions claims the allegiance of more than 1% of the population.

Table B-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—religious affiliation, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born Immigrants Immigrated
before 1986
Immigrated
1986-1995
Immigrated
1996-2001
Roman Catholic 210,040 47,020 29,270 13,070 4,680
Protestant 281,720 37,540 29,670 5,290 2,590
Orthodox Christian 16,310 5,320 2,260 1,580 1,520
Other Christian 39,780 8,130 4,140 2,790 1,190
Muslim 7,180 12,000 5,180 4,190 2,630
Buddhist 4,030 9,700 5,080 3,840 780
Hindu 2,120 5,510 2,480 1,760 1,270
Sikh 3,230 6,100 2,430 2,240 1,430
Other 10,690 2,820 1,650 880 240
No religion 180,840 31,110 17,890 8,550 4,670
Total 755,970 165,240 100,060 44,170 21,010
 
Roman Catholic 28% 28% 29% 30% 22%
Protestant 37% 23% 30% 12% 12%
Orthodox Christian 2% 3% 2% 4% 7%
Other Christian 5% 5% 4% 6% 6%
Muslim 1% 7% 5% 9% 12%
Buddhist 1% 6% 5% 9% 4%
Hindu 0% 3% 2% 4% 6%
Sikh 0% 4% 2% 5% 7%
Other 1% 2% 2% 2% 1%
No religion 24% 19% 18% 19% 22%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Note: Religions are listed in order of their share of the population of Canada, from highest to lowest, with Christian religions grouped together.

Roman Catholics account for a large proportion of both the Canadian-born and immigrant populations. Close to four in ten Canadian-born are Protestant, with the United Church having the largest following among the major Protestant churches, accounting for 13% of the Canadian-born population. Only 2% of recent immigrants are affiliated with the United Church.

Age and gender

One-half of recent immigrants are adults 25 to 44 years old

The age distribution of the recent immigrant population is markedly different from that of the Canadian-born population, with a larger proportion aged 25 to 44, and proportionally fewer children under 15 years of age. In 2001, nearly one-half of recent immigrants living in Edmonton were between the ages of 25 and 44, compared to three-tenths of Canadian-born individuals in this age range. Children under 15 years of age accounted for just 14% of the recent immigrant population compared with 24% of the Canadian-born population.

These differences in age structure are to a large degree a result of how we define immigrants and the Canadian-born. The immigrant population grows older like the Canadian population but does not renew itself in the same way, as children born in Canada to immigrants are not considered immigrants. Thus, there are no persons under 15 years of age among immigrants who landed before 1986, and the older age groups are over-represented among these earlier immigrants. By the same token, the share of children among the Canadian-born is large as it includes children born to immigrant parents.

The age structure of very recent immigrants closely resembles age at arrival. Immigrants tend to arrive in Canada during their prime working-age years. This was the case among immigrants who landed more than 30 years ago, and it is still the case today. It is therefore not surprising that a large share of very recent immigrants were in the 25 to 44 age group.

Many of the characteristics and circumstances described in this profile vary with age. Differences between immigrants or groups of immigrants and the Canadian-born often are at least in part a reflection of differences in the age structure.

Figure B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, by age, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure B-1

Table B-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 ( number and percentage distribution)
  Under 15
years
15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total
Women
Canadian-born 86,900 61,380 118,480 77,670 34,430 378,840
Immigrants 3,490 7,260 28,900 28,980 16,730 85,360
 Immigrated before 1986 0 1,490 12,070 22,670 14,190 50,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,420 3,940 11,390 4,960 2,110 23,820
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,080 1,840 5,440 1,350 430 11,120
Men
Canadian-born 91,000 64,380 119,510 75,430 26,800 377,130
Immigrants 3,710 6,820 26,030 29,420 13,920 79,880
 Immigrated before 1986 0 1,550 12,380 23,660 12,050 49,650
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,570 3,840 9,020 4,370 1,560 20,350
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,150 1,430 4,640 1,380 310 9,890
Total
Canadian-born 177,900 125,760 237,990 153,110 61,230 755,970
Immigrants 7,210 14,080 54,930 58,390 30,640 165,240
 Immigrated before 1986 0 3,040 24,450 46,340 26,230 100,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,990 7,780 20,410 9,340 3,680 44,170
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,220 3,260 10,080 2,730 730 21,010
 
Canadian-born 24% 17% 31% 20% 8% 100%
Immigrants 4% 9% 33% 35% 19% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 3% 24% 46% 26% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 18% 46% 21% 8% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 20% 16% 48% 13% 3% 100%
Total population 20% 15% 32% 23% 10% 100%

More women than men

The proportion of women in the recent immigrant population in Edmonton is similar to but, at 53% to 54%, slightly higher than that of the Canadian-born population. More than 65% of recent immigrants from the Philippines, China and Viet Nam are women, but the number of immigrants from these countries is relatively small.

Table B-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage of women, by age, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Canadian-born 49% 49% 50% 51% 56% 50%
Immigrants 48% 52% 53% 50% 55% 52%
 Immigrated before 1986 49% 49% 49% 54% 50%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 48% 51% 56% 53% 57% 54%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 49% 56% 54% 50% 58% 53%

There are 4,700 more women than men among the 65,200 recent immigrants in Edmonton. The number of women is particularly high among recent immigrants from the Philippines (1,800 more women than men out of 7,000 recent immigrants) and China (500 more women than men out of 6,000 recent immigrants).

As women on average live longer than men, they make up a large share of persons aged 65 years and over. But the higher proportion of women among recent immigrants is not related to age. For instance, almost two-thirds of recent immigrants aged 25 to 44 from the Philippines are women. Some of them have obtained permanent resident status after a period of employment as live-in caregivers.

At the opposite end of the spectrum of the gender mix are Pakistan, Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Fifty-four percent or more of recent immigrants from these countries are men. Men outnumber women by 100 among recent immigrants from Lebanon, and by 80 in the case of Pakistan.

The gender balance, by country of origin, has not changed greatly since 1996.

Language and education

Nine in ten very recent immigrants speak English or French

A large majority of Edmonton’s immigrants 15 years of age and over reported being able to carry on a conversation in at least one of Canada’s two official languages. Even among very recent immigrants, nine in ten (93% of men and 89% of women) reported being able to speak an official language in May 2001. Knowledge of official languages is somewhat more widespread among those who immigrated in earlier periods: 91% of those arriving between 1986 and 1995 and 96% of those arriving before 1986 indicated that they were able to speak an official language.

Table B-7: Very recent immigrants (immigrated 1996-2001)—15 years of age and over — knowledge of official languages, by age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  English only French only English and French Neither English nor French Total
Women
15 to 24 years 2,540 30 90 170 2,820
25 to 44 years 8,020 30 510 690 9,240
45 to 64 years 1,640 80 710 2,430
65 years and over 320 10 350 670
15 years and over 12,510 50 680 1,910 15,150
Men
15 to 24 years 2,430 10 130 110 2,670
25 to 44 years 7,000 20 570 230 7,810
45 to 64 years 2,100 130 370 2,600
65 years and over 190 10 250 440
15 years and over 11,720 30 840 950 13,530
Total
15 to 24 years 4,970 30 220 270 5,480
25 to 44 years 15,020 50 1,080 920 17,050
45 to 64 years 3,750 10 200 1,090 5,040
65 years and over 510 20 590 1,120
15 years and over 24,220 90 1,520 2,860 28,680
 
Women
15 to 24 years 90% 1% 3% 6% 100%
25 to 44 years 87% 0% 6% 7% 100%
45 to 64 years 67% 0% 3% 29% 100%
65 years and over 48% 0% 1% 52% 100%
15 years and over 83% 0% 4% 13% 100%
Men
15 to 24 years 91% 0% 5% 4% 100%
25 to 44 years 90% 0% 7% 3% 100%
45 to 64 years 81% 0% 5% 14% 100%
65 years and over 43% 0% 2% 57% 100%
15 years and over 87% 0% 6% 7% 100%
Total
15 to 24 years 91% 1% 4% 5% 100%
25 to 44 years 88% 0% 6% 5% 100%
45 to 64 years 74% 0% 4% 22% 100%
65 years and over 46% 0% 2% 53% 100%
15 years and over 84% 0% 5% 10% 100%

The proportion of Edmonton’s immigrants able to carry on a conversation in English or French decreases with age. Among immigrants under age 45 who landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001, almost all are able to speak an official language. Among those aged 45 to 64, however, the percentage that can speak English or French falls, and more so for women than men. For both men and women, seniors aged 65 and over are least likely to have conversational ability in English or French.

Ability to converse in either or both official languages has improved with the very recent immigrant cohort: 5% more men and 6% more women had this ability in 2001 compared to a similar cohort (those who landed within the five years prior to the census) in 1996. This may reflect changes in countries of origin, the increase in the share of economic immigrants and perhaps also greater awareness among immigrants of the need to speak Canada’s languages before and after arrival.

Three in five very recent immigrants speak a foreign language at home

For the majority of Edmonton’s recent immigrants, the language spoken most often at home is one other than English or French. Six in ten immigrants who landed between 1996 and 2001 most often speak a foreign language in their homes.

The use of foreign languages is also high among other immigrant cohorts. Over one-half of those who immigrated between 1986 and 1995 and one in four of those who immigrated prior to 1986 most often spoke a foreign language at home.

Figure B-2: Immigrants by period of immigration—15 years of age and over —use of a foreign language at home, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

Figure B-2

The use of foreign languages in the home among very recent immigrant was not as high in 2001 as in 1996, when fully two-thirds of the very recent immigrant cohort reported use of a foreign language in the home. Of those who had lived in Canada from 5 to 15 years, the share using a foreign language in the home was the same in 2001 as in 1996.

Many university degrees among very recent immigrants

The share of immigrants with a minimal education is three times as large as the share of the Canadian-born with a minimal education. The Canadian-born are more likely than immigrants to have some high school or to have completed college or a trade diploma. Very recent immigrants, however, boast a large number of university graduates—twice as large a share as among the Canadian-born. This high proportion of university graduates is most likely a result of immigrant selection policy, which places a large emphasis on education for immigrants in the economic category.

When education levels are compared by age group, the younger generation has a much higher level of education than older groups, whether born inside or outside Canada. Three in five Canadian-born persons under 45 years of age have a post-secondary diploma or degree, compared to two in five men and three in ten women over 65 years of age. A similar difference in educational qualifications is observed among immigrants.

Three-quarters of men aged 25-44 who immigrated during the 1996-2001 period have a post-secondary diploma or degree, compared to 58% of Canadian-born men. Two-thirds of very recent immigrant women in the same age group have a post-secondary diploma or degree, also surpassing their Canadian-born contemporaries.

In 1996, immigrant men who had landed in the five years prior to the census were not as well educated as very recent immigrant men in 2001.

Table B-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—highest level of education, by gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,400 80,750 70,240 86,270 44,310 291,950
Immigrants 12,500 16,950 16,600 20,680 15,140 81,860
 Immigrated before 1986 8,650 10,630 9,490 13,610 8,030 50,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,010 4,730 5,160 5,110 4,410 22,400
 Immigrated 1996-2001 840 1,590 1,950 1,980 2,700 9,050
Men
Canadian-born 10,850 80,870 60,100 93,300 41,020 286,130
Immigrants 7,310 14,580 12,170 25,010 17,120 76,170
 Immigrated before 1986 5,280 8,820 6,970 18,210 10,390 49,660
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,640 4,340 3,800 5,080 3,940 18,790
 Immigrated 1996-2001 390 1,430 1,400 1,730 2,800 7,740
Total
Canadian-born 21,250 161,610 130,340 179,570 85,320 578,080
Immigrants 19,810 31,520 28,760 45,690 32,250 158,040
 Immigrated before 1986 13,920 19,450 16,460 31,820 18,410 100,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,660 9,060 8,960 10,180 8,340 41,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,230 3,020 3,350 3,700 5,500 16,790
 
Women
Canadian-born 4% 28% 24% 30% 15% 100%
Immigrants 15% 21% 20% 25% 18% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 17% 21% 19% 27% 16% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 13% 21% 23% 23% 20% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 18% 21% 22% 30% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 4% 28% 21% 33% 14% 100%
Immigrants 10% 19% 16% 33% 22% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 18% 14% 37% 21% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9% 23% 20% 27% 21% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 18% 18% 22% 36% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 4% 28% 23% 31% 15% 100%
Immigrants 13% 20% 18% 29% 20% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 14% 19% 16% 32% 18% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 11% 22% 22% 25% 20% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 18% 20% 22% 33% 100%

 

Table B-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 years of age and over, with no high school diploma or with post-secondary diploma or degree—by age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  No high school diploma With post-secondary diploma or degree
  25 to 44
years
45 to 65
years
65 years
and over
25 to 44
years
45 to 65
years
65
years
and over
Women
Canadian-born 22,910 21,520 19,980 68,260 39,360 9,800
Immigrants 6,310 9,310 11,440 16,370 14,220 3,450
 Immigrated before 1986 2,580 6,990 9,500 6,570 11,350 3,090
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,920 1,710 1,670 6,140 2,380 230
 Immigrated 1996-2001 800 630 250 3,660 510 120
Men
Canadian-born 26,850 19,170 14,030 69,000 44,440 10,150
Immigrants 5,470 6,700 6,830 15,860 19,100 5,900
 Immigrated before 1986 2,860 5,130 5,720 6,990 15,770 5,400
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,120 1,200 940 5,410 2,580 400
 Immigrated 1996-2001 500 390 180 3,460 750 110
Total
Canadian-born 49,750 40,680 34,010 137,260 83,800 19,950
Immigrants 11,770 16,010 18,260 32,220 33,320 9,350
 Immigrated before 1986 5,440 12,100 15,230 13,550 27,120 8,500
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5,030 2,910 2,600 11,540 4,950 630
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,310 1,020 430 7,120 1,260 230
 
Women
Canadian-born 19% 28% 58% 58% 51% 28%
Immigrants 22% 32% 68% 57% 49% 21%
 Immigrated before 1986 21% 31% 67% 54% 50% 22%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 26% 34% 79% 54% 48% 11%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15% 46% 59% 67% 37% 28%
Men
Canadian-born 22% 25% 52% 58% 59% 38%
Immigrants 21% 23% 49% 61% 65% 42%
 Immigrated before 1986 23% 22% 47% 56% 67% 45%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 24% 27% 60% 60% 59% 26%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 28% 57% 75% 54% 34%
Total
Canadian-born 21% 27% 56% 58% 55% 33%
Immigrants 21% 27% 60% 59% 57% 30%
 Immigrated before 1986 22% 26% 58% 55% 59% 32%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 25% 31% 71% 57% 53% 17%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 37% 59% 71% 46% 32%

Recent immigrants add to Edmonton’s pool of scientists and engineers

Nearly two out of every three men who immigrated after 1985 and have a post-secondary diploma or degree majored in physical sciences, engineering or trades. This compares to three out of five Canadian-born men. Among women with a post-secondary diploma or degree, three in ten very recent immigrants have studied some physical science or technology, compared to one in ten Canadian-born women.

Table B-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, with post-secondary diploma or degree—major field of study, by gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Physical sciences, engineering and trades Social sciences, education and arts Commerce, management and business administration Health professions and related technologies Total
Women
Canadian-born 16,220 50,930 36,890 26,370 130,400
Immigrants 6,670 12,710 9,080 7,320 35,770
 Immigrated before 1986 2,070 3,110 2,630 1,690 9,490
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,280 8,060 5,480 4,800 21,620
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,310 1,540 980 830 4,650
Men
Canadian-born 80,530 28,400 19,180 6,070 134,170
Immigrants 26,430 7,810 5,190 2,650 42,070
 Immigrated before 1986 5,540 1,680 1,130 670 9,020
 Immigrated 1986-1995 17,960 5,400 3,460 1,720 28,540
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,950 730 600 260 4,530
Total
Canadian-born 96,740 79,330 56,070 32,430 264,560
Immigrants 33,100 20,510 14,270 9,970 77,840
 Immigrated before 1986 7,610 4,780 3,750 2,360 18,490
 Immigrated 1986-1995 21,260 13,470 8,940 6,530 50,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,250 2,270 1,580 1,080 9,180
 
Women
Canadian-born 12% 39% 28% 20% 100%
Immigrants 19% 36% 25% 20% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 22% 33% 28% 18% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15% 37% 25% 22% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 28% 33% 21% 18% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 60% 21% 14% 5% 100%
Immigrants 63% 19% 12% 6% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 61% 19% 13% 7% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 63% 19% 12% 6% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 65% 16% 13% 6% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 37% 30% 21% 12% 100%
Immigrants 43% 26% 18% 13% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 41% 26% 20% 13% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 42% 27% 18% 13% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 46% 25% 17% 12% 100%

By contrast, recent immigrants are represented in smaller proportions than the Canadian-born in the social sciences, education and the arts and, in the case of women, in commerce, management and business administration.

The educational choices of immigrants, recent immigrants and the Canadian-born remain much the same in 2001 as in 1996.

Recent immigrants more likely to attend school

Very recent immigrants are relatively likely to be in school. School attendance is at least twice as high for this group as for the Canadian-born, in both the 25-44 and 45-64 age groups.

Table B-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, attending school—by age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 64
years
15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 64
years
Women
Canadian-born 37,300 16,920 4,060 61% 14% 5%
Immigrants 4,930 4,980 1,620 68% 17% 6%
 Immigrated before 1986 970 1,730 1,080 65% 14% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,890 1,830 380 73% 16% 8%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,090 1,420 190 60% 26% 14%
Men
Canadian-born 35,810 14,320 2,410 56% 12% 3%
Immigrants 4,480 4,340 1,240 66% 17% 4%
 Immigrated before 1986 910 1,640 830 58% 13% 3%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,570 1,390 240 67% 15% 5%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,010 1,330 160 71% 29% 12%
Total
Canadian-born 73,110 31,250 6,470 58% 13% 4%
Immigrants 9,410 9,320 2,860 67% 17% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 1,850 3,350 1,900 61% 14% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5,450 3,220 620 70% 16% 7%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,100 2,740 350 64% 27% 13%

School attendance, of course, is much higher in the youngest age group, persons of 15 to 24 years of age, than in older age groups. Here we find a higher rate of attendance among very recent immigrant men than among the Canadian-born, and about the same rates for immigrant and Canadian-born women. The latter is just as noteworthy as the former, as educational participation of young Canadian-born women is very high by international standards.

School attendance is also high among young earlier immigrants. For this group, language is not likely to be an issue, since they landed as young children. By and large, school attendance rates were similar to those in 1996.

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