Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Edmonton—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower the more recent the arrival

Very recent immigrants are not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. The difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is twelve percentage points for women and five percentage points for men. Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is more like that of the Canadian-born. A pattern of adjustment and increasing involvement of immigrants in the Canadian labour market with longer stay is evident in all three age groups, for both men and women.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 43,710 98,030 55,140 196,870
Immigrants 4,690 22,270 19,900 46,860
 Immigrated before 1986 1,140 10,110 15,630 26,870
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,460 8,570 3,430 14,450
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,110 3,600 850 5,550
Men
Canadian-born 47,510 111,480 64,110 223,090
Immigrants 4,390 23,620 24,950 52,960
 Immigrated before 1986 1,230 11,350 20,130 32,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,350 8,190 3,690 14,220
 Immigrated 1996-2001 820 4,080 1,140 6,030
Total
Canadian-born 91,220 209,500 119,250 419,960
Immigrants 9,090 45,890 44,850 99,820
 Immigrated before 1986 2,360 21,470 35,760 59,580
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,810 16,760 7,110 28,680
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,920 7,670 1,980 11,570

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 71% 83% 71% 76% 196,870
Immigrants 65% 77% 69% 72% 46,860
 Immigrated before 1986 76% 84% 69% 74% 26,870
 Immigrated 1986-1995 62% 75% 69% 71% 14,450
 Immigrated 1996-2001 60% 66% 63% 64% 5,550
Men
Canadian-born 74% 93% 85% 86% 223,090
Immigrants 64% 91% 85% 85% 52,960
 Immigrated before 1986 79% 92% 85% 87% 32,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 61% 91% 84% 83% 14,220
 Immigrated 1996-2001 57% 88% 83% 81% 6,030
Total
Canadian-born 73% 88% 78% 81% 419,960
Immigrants 65% 84% 77% 78% 99,820
 Immigrated before 1986 78% 88% 77% 81% 59,580
 Immigrated 1986-1995 62% 82% 76% 76% 28,680
 Immigrated 1996-2001 59% 76% 73% 72% 11,570

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Labour force participation for the very recent immigrant cohort increased between 1996 and 2001. The young and old age cohorts showed significant gains while the middle age group saw some gains for men and declines for women. Labour force participation increased most among very recent immigrants: by four percentage points for women and eight percentage points for men, compared to changes of no more than two percentage points for other groups.

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-1, women

Figure D-1, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education, the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants, with one significant exception: men who immigrated after 1985 and who at the time of the 2001 Census had only attended elementary school had a higher participation rate than those with some high school.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,480 41,700 52,130 65,430 36,140 196,870
Immigrants 2,660 7,720 10,450 14,570 11,470 46,860
 Immigrated before 1986 1,490 4,410 5,850 9,010 6,120 26,870
 Immigrated 1986-1995 870 2,500 3,420 4,180 3,500 14,450
 Immigrated 1996-2001 300 820 1,170 1,380 1,860 5,550
Men
Canadian-born 3,630 53,650 51,380 79,690 34,760 223,090
Immigrants 2,560 8,640 9,200 18,730 13,830 52,960
 Immigrated before 1986 1,500 5,090 5,310 12,810 7,980 32,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 830 2,690 2,790 4,420 3,500 14,220
 Immigrated 1996-2001 210 850 1,100 1,510 2,360 6,030
Total
Canadian-born 5,110 95,340 103,500 145,120 70,900 419,960
Immigrants 5,220 16,360 19,650 33,300 25,310 99,820
 Immigrated before 1986 3,000 9,500 11,170 21,820 14,100 59,580
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,710 5,190 6,210 8,600 6,980 28,680
 Immigrated 1996-2001 520 1,660 2,280 2,890 4,220 11,570

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

As well, immigrants with only elementary schooling, even very recent immigrants, are equally or more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born with similar levels of education. But at all other education levels, there is a common pattern of relatively low participation rates for very recent immigrants and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born for earlier cohorts.

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 37% 62% 79% 83% 86% 76%
Immigrants 49% 61% 71% 80% 81% 72%
 Immigrated before 1986 49% 66% 74% 80% 84% 74%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 51% 57% 69% 84% 81% 71%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 47% 53% 62% 71% 71% 64%
Men
Canadian-born 64% 75% 89% 92% 92% 86%
Immigrants 75% 74% 84% 90% 90% 85%
 Immigrated before 1986 71% 81% 88% 89% 90% 87%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 77% 68% 78% 91% 93% 83%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 79% 61% 80% 89% 86% 81%
Total
Canadian-born 53% 69% 84% 88% 89% 81%
Immigrants 59% 67% 76% 85% 86% 78%
 Immigrated before 1986 59% 73% 80% 85% 87% 81%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 61% 62% 73% 87% 87% 76%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 58% 57% 70% 80% 79% 72%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

As mentioned previously, labour force participation by very recent immigrants increased by four percentage points for women and eight percentage points for men between 1996 and 2001, while that of other groups showed little change. The increase among very recent immigrants occurred at all levels of education, except for women holding a post-secondary diploma or degree.

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-2, women

Figure D-2, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Knowledge of English important for labour force participation

Most immigrants report that they have knowledge of either English or French when they immigrate to Canada. As reported at the time of the 2001 Census, the large majority of both men and women who immigrated during the 1990s and settled in Edmonton have knowledge of English. Those who do not speak English are not nearly as active in the labour market as those who do. The gap in labour force participation between those who speak English and those who do not is larger for women than for men.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Population Labour force
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 196,740 196,870
Immigrants 2,690 1,170 45,700 46,860
 Immigrated before 1986 750 330 26,550 26,870
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,190 490 13,960 14,450
 Immigrated 1996-2001 750 340 5,190 5,550
Men
Canadian-born 223,010 223,090
Immigrants 1,620 1,060 51,900 52,960
 Immigrated before 1986 560 380 32,360 32,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 640 390 13,840 14,220
 Immigrated 1996-2001 420 310 5,720 6,030
Total
Canadian-born 419,750 419,960
Immigrants 4,320 2,230 97,590 99,820
 Immigrated before 1986 1,300 700 58,860 59,580
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,830 860 27,810 28,680
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,190 660 10,920 11,570

 

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by knowledge of English and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Population share Labour force
participation rate
  No
English
No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 76% 76%
Immigrants 4% 43% 73% 72%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 44% 75% 74%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 41% 73% 71%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 45% 66% 64%
Men
Canadian-born 86% 86%
Immigrants 3% 65% 86% 85%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 68% 87% 87%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 61% 83% 83%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 73% 82% 81%
Total
Canadian-born 81% 81%
Immigrants 3% 52% 79% 78%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 54% 81% 81%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 47% 78% 76%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 55% 73% 72%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Unemployment higher during initial years

Very recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 are more likely to experience unemployment than those who have been in the country for a longer period of time. For instance, very recent immigrant men age 25 to 64 in Edmonton experienced an unemployment rate of 7% and very recent immigrant women in the same age group experienced rates of 7% to 9%, varying by age. Unemployment is significantly lower among persons who immigrated before 1996, except in the youngest age group.

The overall unemployment rate in 2001 was lower than in 1996 by two percentage points. All groups shown in the Tables D-7 and D-8 shared in the decline, which was for the most part greatest for the young and for very recent immigrants. A decline of more than ten percentage points was experienced by very recent immigrant men and women in the oldest age group.

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 4,300 4,890 1,810 10,990
Immigrants 480 1,280 700 2,450
 Immigrated before 1986 120 440 510 1,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 290 530 140 960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 80 320 60 450
Men
Canadian-born 5,610 4,390 2,220 12,210
Immigrants 540 1,110 980 2,620
 Immigrated before 1986 160 480 740 1,380
 Immigrated 1986-1995 280 350 170 790
 Immigrated 1996-2001 100 290 80 470
Total
Canadian-born 9,900 9,280 4,030 23,200
Immigrants 1,010 2,390 1,670 5,070
 Immigrated before 1986 280 900 1,250 2,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 560 880 310 1,750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 180 610 130 910

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 10% 5% 3% 6% 10,990
Immigrants 10% 6% 3% 5% 2,450
 Immigrated before 1986 10% 4% 3% 4% 1,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 6% 4% 7% 960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 9% 7% 8% 450
Men
Canadian-born 12% 4% 3% 5% 12,210
Immigrants 12% 5% 4% 5% 2,620
 Immigrated before 1986 13% 4% 4% 4% 1,380
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 4% 4% 6% 790
 Immigrated 1996-2001 12% 7% 7% 8% 470
Total
Canadian-born 11% 4% 3% 6% 23,200
Immigrants 11% 5% 4% 5% 5,070
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 4% 3% 4% 2,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 5% 4% 6% 1,750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 8% 7% 8% 910

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Earlier cohorts have lower unemployment rates than more recent cohorts at most levels of education. For example, men who immigrated after 1995 and who have a high school diploma have an unemployment rate of 9%; the unemployment rate drops to 7% for immigrants who landed between 1986 and 1995 and to 6% for those arriving before 1986. However, immigrant women with a high school diploma who landed between 1986 and 1995 experienced higher rates of unemployment than very recent immigrants.

All groups shown in Table D-10 had a lower unemployment rate in 2001 than in 1996. The unemployment rate declined more for recent immigrant women with education below the university level than for earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born. Generally, the improvement was greater the lower the level of education.

Recent immigrant men who do not speak English are more likely to be unemployed than those that do, but this pattern does not hold for women. The difference in unemployment rates between those who speak English and those who do not varies from five percentage points lower to four percentage points higher, depending on gender and period of immigration.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 210 3,240 2,900 3,250 1,410 10,990
Immigrants 120 410 640 640 640 2,450
 Immigrated before 1986 70 140 260 360 230 1,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50 200 310 190 200 960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10 70 80 80 210 450
Men
Canadian-born 260 4,570 3,170 3,140 1,090 12,210
Immigrants 150 440 630 790 630 2,620
 Immigrated before 1986 100 230 330 480 220 1,380
 Immigrated 1986-1995 30 170 200 220 170 790
 Immigrated 1996-2001 0 40 100 100 220 470
Total
Canadian-born 470 7,810 6,070 6,370 2,490 23,200
Immigrants 280 860 1,250 1,430 1,260 5,070
 Immigrated before 1986 180 370 590 830 450 2,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 80 380 500 420 370 1,750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 30 110 180 180 440 910

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by level of education and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 14% 8% 6% 5% 4% 6%
Immigrants 5% 5% 6% 4% 6% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 3% 4% 4% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 8% 9% 5% 6% 7%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3% 9% 7% 5% 11% 8%
Men
Canadian-born 7% 9% 6% 4% 3% 5%
Immigrants 6% 5% 7% 4% 5% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 7% 5% 6% 4% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 6% 7% 5% 5% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 0% 5% 9% 6% 9% 8%
Total
Canadian-born 9% 8% 6% 4% 4% 6%
Immigrants 5% 5% 6% 4% 5% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 6% 4% 5% 4% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 7% 8% 5% 5% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 6% 8% 6% 10% 8%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Labour force Unemployed
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,980 10,990
Immigrants 1,170 60 2,390 2,450
 Immigrated before 1986 330 30 1,000 1,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 490 20 930 960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 340 10 440 450
Men
Canadian-born 12,210 12,210
Immigrants 1,060 90 2,530 2,620
 Immigrated before 1986 380 30 1,340 1,380
 Immigrated 1986-1995 390 30 750 790
 Immigrated 1996-2001 310 40 450 470
Total
Canadian-born 23,190 23,200
Immigrants 2,230 150 4,930 5,070
 Immigrated before 1986 700 60 2,350 2,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 860 50 1,710 1,750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 660 50 880 910

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by knowledge of English and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Share of labour force Unemployment rate
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 6% 6%
Immigrants 2% 5% 5% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 8% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 4% 7% 7%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 3% 8% 8%
Men
Canadian-born 5% 5%
Immigrants 2% 8% 5% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 8% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 6% 5% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 11% 8% 8%
Total
Canadian-born 6% 6%
Immigrants 2% 7% 5% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 8% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 5% 6% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 7% 8% 8%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Share of men and women with jobs increases with length of stay

Three in five very recent immigrant women aged 15 to 64 are employed, compared to just under three in four Canadian-born women. For men the difference is smaller: three in four very recent immigrants are employed compared to eight in ten Canadian-born men. As shown in the previous pages, these differences in employment rates reflect mainly differences in labour force participation rates.

Table D-13: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 39,410 93,130 53,330 185,870
Immigrants 4,230 21,000 19,210 44,430
 Immigrated before 1986 1,020 9,680 15,130 25,820
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,170 8,040 3,290 13,500
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,040 3,280 800 5,110
Men
Canadian-born 41,910 107,090 61,890 210,890
Immigrants 3,850 22,510 23,970 50,330
 Immigrated before 1986 1,070 10,880 19,390 31,330
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,070 7,840 3,520 13,430
 Immigrated 1996-2001 710 3,790 1,060 5,550
Total
Canadian-born 81,320 200,220 115,220 396,750
Immigrants 8,080 43,500 43,180 94,760
 Immigrated before 1986 2,090 20,570 34,530 57,180
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,250 15,880 6,810 26,930
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,750 7,070 1,850 10,660

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Among immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is more common than among the more recently landed. Generally, immigrant participation in the labour market increases with the length of stay in Canada.

In 2001, the incidence of employment was the same or higher among all immigrant cohorts than in 1996. The changes were generally greater for younger and older groups than for those at prime working age. Immigrants experienced a greater change than the Canadian-born, and recent immigrants experienced larger gains than earlier immigrants.

Table D-14: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 64% 79% 69% 72% 185,870
Immigrants 58% 73% 66% 68% 44,430
 Immigrated before 1986 68% 80% 67% 71% 25,820
 Immigrated 1986-1995 55% 71% 66% 67% 13,500
 Immigrated 1996-2001 57% 60% 59% 59% 5,110
Men
Canadian-born 65% 90% 82% 81% 210,890
Immigrants 56% 86% 82% 81% 50,330
 Immigrated before 1986 68% 88% 82% 83% 31,330
 Immigrated 1986-1995 54% 87% 80% 78% 13,430
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50% 82% 77% 75% 5,550
Total
Canadian-born 65% 84% 75% 77% 396,750
Immigrants 57% 79% 74% 74% 94,760
 Immigrated before 1986 69% 84% 75% 77% 57,180
 Immigrated 1986-1995 55% 78% 73% 72% 26,930
 Immigrated 1996-2001 54% 70% 68% 66% 10,660

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs more common for very recent immigrants aged 25 to 64

The proportion of employed persons who work part-time varies considerably by age and gender, both for immigrants and the Canadian-born. Part-time employment is most common in the 15-24 age group. Among women aged 25 to 64, 25% to 29% work part-time, varying by cohort, while for men the share is 5% to 8%, again varying by cohort.

Part-time employment is more common for very recent immigrants of either gender than for other immigrant cohorts and the Canadian-born, with the exception of very recent immigrant women aged 15 to 24.

The share of jobs that was part-time was lower in 2001 than in 1996 for the 25-44 and 45-64 age groups. The changes were in the order of zero to four percentage points and three to six percentage points for very recent immigrants.

Table D-15: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 26,200 26,800 15,110 68,100
Immigrants 2,670 5,650 5,610 13,920
 Immigrated before 1986 640 2,590 4,520 7,740
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,600 2,280 900 4,770
 Immigrated 1996-1999 440 790 200 1,420
Men
Canadian-born 20,630 5,810 4,530 30,960
Immigrants 1,970 1,670 1,640 5,270
 Immigrated before 1986 460 780 1,240 2,480
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,170 520 300 1,980
 Immigrated 1996-1999 340 370 100 810
Total
Canadian-born 46,840 32,600 19,630 99,070
Immigrants 4,630 7,320 7,240 19,180
 Immigrated before 1986 1,090 3,360 5,750 10,200
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,770 2,800 1,200 6,760
 Immigrated 1996-1999 770 1,170 290 2,230

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Table D-16: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed working mostly part-time, by age and gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 56% 26% 26% 33%
Immigrants 58% 25% 27% 29%
 Immigrated before 1986 51% 25% 27% 27%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 62% 25% 25% 31%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 53% 28% 29% 33%
Men
Canadian-born 41% 5% 7% 13%
Immigrants 45% 7% 6% 10%
 Immigrated before 1986 37% 7% 6% 7%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 47% 6% 8% 13%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 55% 12% 11% 18%
Total
Canadian-born 48% 15% 16% 23%
Immigrants 52% 16% 16% 19%
 Immigrated before 1986 44% 15% 15% 17%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 55% 16% 16% 23%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 53% 20% 19% 25%

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Many recent immigrants in sales and services, health and science occupations

Employed immigrants are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in sales and service occupations and processing occupations. They are also more likely than the Canadian-born to work in health and science jobs. One-half of employed recent immigrant women and one-third of employed recent immigrant men work in sales and service jobs and processing jobs, compared to one quarter of the Canadian-born. The differences between immigrants and the Canadian-born are greater for women than for men. By contrast, management and social occupations, which are favoured by the Canadian-born, account for a smaller share of the jobs of recent immigrants.

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-3, women

figure D-3, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Table D-17: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Processing Admin-
istrative
Mana-
gement and social sciences
Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 31,100 3,420 50,650 37,830 3,520 19,950 146,470
Immigrants 12,710 2,530 9,270 8,490 990 6,260 40,210
 Immigrated before 1986 6,840 1,230 6,650 5,780 560 3,750 24,810
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,190 980 2,100 1,920 360 1,800 11,330
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,700 300 500 790 90 700 4,070
Men
Canadian-born 25,790 13,030 15,470 39,670 52,680 22,360 168,980
Immigrants 7,940 4,150 3,430 9,800 13,150 8,010 46,480
 Immigrated before 1986 4,720 2,160 2,400 6,980 8,880 5,130 30,290
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,260 1,370 760 1,930 3,300 1,760 11,360
 Immigrated 1996-2001 970 620 260 890 980 1,140 4,850
Total
Canadian-born 56,890 16,450 66,110 77,500 56,200 42,300 315,440
Immigrants 20,650 6,680 12,690 18,290 14,130 14,250 86,680
 Immigrated before 1986 11,550 3,430 9,080 12,760 9,430 8,880 55,090
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6,440 2,350 2,860 3,850 3,650 3,540 22,680
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,670 910 770 1,670 1,060 1,850 8,920
 
Women
Canadian-born 21% 2% 35% 26% 2% 14% 146,470
Immigrants 32% 6% 23% 21% 2% 16% 40,210
 Immigrated before 1986 28% 5% 27% 23% 2% 15% 24,810
 Immigrated 1986-1995 37% 9% 18% 17% 3% 16% 11,330
 Immigrated 1996-2001 42% 7% 12% 19% 2% 17% 4,070
Men
Canadian-born 15% 8% 9% 23% 31% 13% 168,980
Immigrants 17% 9% 7% 21% 28% 17% 46,480
 Immigrated before 1986 16% 7% 8% 23% 29% 17% 30,290
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20% 12% 7% 17% 29% 15% 11,360
 Immigrated 1996-2001 20% 13% 5% 18% 20% 23% 4,850
Total
Canadian-born 18% 5% 21% 25% 18% 13% 315,440
Immigrants 24% 8% 15% 21% 16% 16% 86,680
 Immigrated before 1986 21% 6% 16% 23% 17% 16% 55,090
 Immigrated 1986-1995 28% 10% 13% 17% 16% 16% 22,680
 Immigrated 1996-2001 30% 10% 9% 19% 12% 21% 8,920

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The distribution of occupations of very recent immigrants is quite similar to that of earlier cohorts, with two major exceptions: a higher share of occupations of very recent immigrant men are in the health and science fields, with a lower share in trades and transport industries. This is something specific to the latest cohort, as five years earlier in the 1996 Census the prevalence of health and science occupations among employed immigrants was quite similar across all cohorts, including very recent immigrants.

Many recent immigrants in manufacturing and hospitality sectors

In Edmonton, a larger proportion of the jobs of recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 than of the Canadian-born are in manufacturing industries and in hospitality and other services industries. By contrast, construction and transportation industries account for a smaller share of jobs of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born.

Compared to 1996, employment hospitality and other services industries among the very recent immigrant cohort is lower and employment in business services industries is more prevalent among recent immigrant men.

Table D-18: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Construc-tion and Transpor-tation Trade Busi-ness services Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,040 11,930 22,350 24,030 60,060 18,060 146,500
Immigrants 4,020 1,580 5,460 5,210 15,500 8,470 40,200
 Immigrated before 1986 2,140 1,130 3,360 3,370 10,410 4,430 24,800
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,410 300 1,540 1,420 3,810 2,850 11,300
 Immigrated 1996-2001 470 150 560 430 1,290 1,180 4,100
Men
Canadian-born 29,600 46,150 30,040 22,390 28,090 12,740 169,000
Immigrants 9,820 8,980 6,740 6,340 8,070 6,530 46,500
 Immigrated before 1986 5,850 6,610 4,380 4,260 5,560 3,630 30,300
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,800 1,820 1,620 1,270 1,760 2,110 11,400
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,200 560 750 820 750 780 4,800
Total
Canadian-born 39,620 58,070 52,380 46,430 88,150 30,790 315,400
Immigrants 13,830 10,550 12,190 11,550 23,570 15,000 86,700
 Immigrated before 1986 7,980 7,730 7,740 7,610 15,950 8,070 55,100
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,200 2,130 3,150 2,680 5,560 4,950 22,700
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,660 690 1,310 1,250 2,030 1,970 8,900
 
Women
Canadian-born 7% 8% 15% 16% 41% 12% 100%
Immigrants 10% 4% 14% 13% 39% 21% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 5% 14% 14% 42% 18% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 3% 14% 13% 34% 25% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 4% 14% 11% 32% 29% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 18% 27% 18% 13% 17% 8% 100%
Immigrants 21% 19% 14% 14% 17% 14% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 19% 22% 14% 14% 18% 12% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 25% 16% 14% 11% 15% 19% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 25% 11% 15% 17% 15% 16% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 13% 18% 17% 15% 28% 10% 100%
Immigrants 16% 12% 14% 13% 27% 17% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 14% 14% 14% 14% 29% 15% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19% 9% 14% 12% 24% 22% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 19% 8% 15% 14% 23% 22% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-4, women

Figure D-4, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Skill requirements of jobs of recent immigrants generally lower

Generally speaking, the jobs of recent immigrants require lower skills than the jobs of the Canadian-born. Three in ten jobs of Canadian-born women require the highest level of skill, a university education. For women who landed after 1995, only two in ten jobs require a university education. For both men and women, the skill requirements of jobs of immigrants who landed before 1986 are closer to that of the Canadian-born.

Table D-19: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,390 48,980 41,560 45,540 146,460
Immigrants 6,130 13,190 10,510 10,390 40,210
 Immigrated before 1986 3,020 7,920 6,620 7,270 24,810
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,180 4,000 2,920 2,240 11,330
 Immigrated 1996-2001 920 1,280 980 900 4,080
Men
Canadian-born 11,050 43,710 61,370 52,850 168,970
Immigrants 4,720 10,760 16,160 14,840 46,480
 Immigrated before 1986 2,300 6,550 11,190 10,230 30,280
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,650 3,110 3,650 2,950 11,360
 Immigrated 1996-2001 770 1,100 1,320 1,670 4,850
Total
Canadian-born 21,440 92,680 102,930 98,400 315,440
Immigrants 10,850 23,950 26,670 25,230 86,680
 Immigrated before 1986 5,340 14,460 17,810 17,510 55,090
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,840 7,110 6,570 5,170 22,680
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,690 2,380 2,290 2,570 8,920
 
Women
Canadian-born 7% 33% 28% 31% 100%
Immigrants 15% 33% 26% 26% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 32% 27% 29% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19% 35% 26% 20% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 23% 31% 24% 22% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 7% 26% 36% 31% 100%
Immigrants 10% 23% 35% 32% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 8% 22% 37% 34% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 27% 32% 26% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16% 23% 27% 34% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 7% 29% 33% 31% 100%
Immigrants 13% 28% 31% 29% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 10% 26% 32% 32% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 17% 31% 29% 23% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 19% 27% 26% 29% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The information presented in Table D-19 does not directly indicate whether the skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels of jobs of employed recent immigrants with the level of education of employed recent immigrants. This is done in Table D-20 for persons holding a university degree.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-5, women

Figure D-5, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Education of recent immigrants not fully utilized

The jobs of recent immigrants with a university degree do not require the same level of skill as the jobs of Canadian-born persons with a university degree. Seven in ten employed Canadian-born women with a university degree have a job requiring a university degree. But only four in ten employed recent immigrant women with university degrees have a job that requires a university degree. Three-quarters of Canadian-born men with a university degree but only three in five recent immigrant men with a university degree have a job requiring a university education.

Table D-20: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 430 3,630 5,120 22,130 31,280
Immigrants 560 2,040 2,050 5,580 10,220
 Immigrated before 1986 160 800 1,000 3,650 5,600
 Immigrated 1986-1995 230 790 710 1,340 3,060
 Immigrated 1996-2001 170 450 340 600 1,550
Men
Canadian-born 570 2,500 4,640 23,930 31,630
Immigrants 510 1,440 2,230 8,710 12,880
 Immigrated before 1986 140 660 1,260 5,560 7,620
 Immigrated 1986-1995 220 470 620 1,840 3,150
 Immigrated 1996-2001 140 320 360 1,310 2,120
Total
Canadian-born 990 6,120 9,760 46,050 62,910
Immigrants 1,070 3,480 4,280 14,280 23,100
 Immigrated before 1986 330 1,450 2,250 9,200 13,220
 Immigrated 1986-1995 460 1,250 1,320 3,180 6,210
 Immigrated 1996-2001 310 770 700 1,900 3,680
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 12% 16% 71% 100%
Immigrants 5% 20% 20% 55% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 14% 18% 65% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 26% 23% 44% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 29% 22% 38% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 2% 8% 15% 76% 100%
Immigrants 4% 11% 17% 68% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 9% 16% 73% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 15% 20% 58% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 15% 17% 62% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 2% 10% 16% 73% 100%
Immigrants 5% 15% 19% 62% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 11% 17% 70% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 20% 21% 51% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 21% 19% 52% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The skill requirements of jobs of very recent immigrants with university degrees increased significantly between 1996 and 2001. For both men and women, the share of jobs requiring a post-secondary diploma or degree was fourteen percentage points higher in 2001 than in 1996, and the share of jobs requiring high school or less was correspondingly smaller. Other groups also experienced an increase in the skill level of their jobs, but to a much smaller extent.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born —25-64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates with job requiring university education, by gender, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Date Modified: