Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Edmonton—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part F: Housing

Crowded accommodations more common for recent immigrants

In Edmonton, recent immigrant households have a higher than average number of persons per room. As many as 18% of recent immigrant households live in crowded conditions (that is, there are more persons than rooms in the home). The incidence of crowding is even higher among households consisting only of very recent immigrants. By contrast, crowding is very rare among households of the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants.

Table F-1: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—persons per room, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
Households Fewer than 0.5 persons 0.5 to 0.74 persons 0.75 to 0.99 persons 1 or more persons Total
Canadian-born 176,610 66,700 10,510 7,890 261,690
Earlier immigrants 41,310 16,570 3,060 2,320 63,260
Recent immigrants 9,580 10,940 4,210 5,250 29,980
 1986-1995 immigrants 6,930 7,300 2,580 2,910 19,700
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 1,410 2,120 890 1,290 5,710
 1996-2001 immigrants only 1,250 1,520 750 1,060 4,570
All households 228,160 94,650 17,870 15,840 356,520
 
Canadian-born 67% 25% 4% 3% 100%
Earlier immigrants 65% 26% 5% 4% 100%
Recent immigrants 32% 36% 14% 18% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 35% 37% 13% 15% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 25% 37% 15% 23% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 27% 33% 16% 23% 100%
All households 64% 27% 5% 4% 100%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household, crowding and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Large households likely to have crowded accommodations

Crowding is related to size of household. The larger the household, the greater the chance that there are more persons than rooms in the dwelling. This pattern is found among households of the Canadian-born as well as immigrants, despite the fact that there is much less crowding in households of the Canadian-born than in households of recent immigrants.

As shown earlier, households of immigrants who landed before 1986 are similar to the households of the Canadian-born in size. They also have accommodations that are similar in size to that of the Canadian-born.

Table F-2: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—persons per room, by size of household, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
Size of household Fewer than 0.5 persons 0.5 to 0.74 persons 0.75 to 0.99 persons 1 or more persons Total
1 to 3 persons
Canadian-born 158,890 33,810 2,900 3,440 199,040
Earlier immigrants 36,540 7,370 540 750 45,170
Recent immigrants 8,090 5,370 1,220 1,280 15,950
 1986-1995 immigrants 5,780 3,140 570 540 10,060
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 1,170 1,270 280 290 3,010
 1996-2001 immigrants only 1,130 970 370 440 2,900
4 to 5 persons
Canadian-born 17,280 30,370 5,940 2,860 56,440
Earlier immigrants 4,670 8,250 1,860 1,070 15,840
Recent immigrants 1,440 4,900 2,100 2,340 10,750
 1986-1995 immigrants 1,110 3,680 1,410 1,330 7,510
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 220 670 340 510 1,720
 1996-2001 immigrants only 120 550 370 500 1,520
6 or more persons
Canadian-born 440 2,520 1,670 1,590 6,220
Earlier immigrants 110 960 680 500 2,250
Recent immigrants 70 660 900 1,650 3,280
 1986-1995 immigrants 50 480 600 1,050 2,160
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 20 180 290 500 980
 1996-2001 immigrants only 10 0 20 110 150
 
1 to 3 persons
Canadian-born 80% 17% 1% 2% 100%
Earlier immigrants 81% 16% 1% 2% 100%
Recent immigrants 51% 34% 8% 8% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 57% 31% 6% 5% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 39% 42% 9% 9% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 39% 33% 13% 15% 100%
4 to 5 persons
Canadian-born 31% 54% 11% 5% 100%
Earlier immigrants 29% 52% 12% 7% 100%
Recent immigrants 13% 46% 19% 22% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 15% 49% 19% 18% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 13% 39% 19% 30% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 8% 36% 24% 33% 100%
6 or more persons
Canadian-born 7% 41% 27% 26% 100%
Earlier immigrants 5% 43% 30% 22% 100%
Recent immigrants 2% 20% 27% 50% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 2% 22% 28% 49% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 2% 18% 29% 51% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 7% 0% 14% 76% 100%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in table. For definitions of household, crowding and related concepts, see the Glossary.

One-quarter of recent immigrant households face high housing costs

Nearly four in ten households made up exclusively of immigrants who landed in Canada between 1996 and 1999 spend more than 30% of their income on accommodations. For one in five of the households of very recent immigrants the cost of accommodations exceeds 50% of income. Among Canadian-born households, less than one in four has housing costs in excess of 30% of income.

Table F-3: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—cost of accommodations as a share of household income, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage distribution)
  Cost of accommodation
Households Less than 30% 30% to 50% 50% or more
Canadian-born 201,560 77% 32,920 13% 23,450 9%
Earlier immigrants 51,440 81% 7,140 11% 4,160 7%
Recent immigrants 20,030 74% 3,830 14% 2,950 11%
 1986-1995 immigrants 14,890 75% 2,790 14% 1,990 10%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others 3,080 79% 500 13% 290 7%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 2,070 63% 540 16% 660 20%
All households 275,340 77% 44,660 13% 31,820 9%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary. Totals do not add to 100% due to some non-reporting households.

Housing costs of more than 30% of income are considered burdensome, and households facing that level of cost generally have low incomes. Many households of recent immigrants have low incomes and try to keep the cost of accommodations down by choosing small quarters and making their households large. But often this is not enough to bring housing costs down to less than 30% of income.

Housing of very recent immigrants in slightly better state of repair

The dwellings of households of immigrants who landed after 1985 have been more recently built than the houses of the Canadian-born.

Table F-4: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—period of construction of household dwelling, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Period of construction
Households Before 1971 1971-1990 1991-2001
Canadian-born 100,160 38% 122,370 47% 39,160 15%
Earlier immigrants 22,140 35% 30,780 49% 10,340 16%
Recent immigrants 8,720 29% 15,560 52% 5,700 19%
 1986-1995 immigrants 5,420 27% 10,140 51% 4,150 21%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 1,750 31% 2,960 52% 980 17%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 1,530 34% 2,460 54% 580 13%
All households 131,600 37% 169,510 48% 55,410 16%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

The state of repair of the dwellings of both recent immigrants and earlier immigrants is slightly better than that of the Canadian-born. This suggests that, although crowding and the cost of housing clearly are challenges for many recent immigrants, they tend not to resort to sub-standard accommodations.

Table F-5: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—quality of housing, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Quality of housing
Households Regular maintenance Minor repairs Major repairs
Canadian-born 165,670 63% 76,250 29% 19,780 8%
Earlier immigrants 41,890 66% 17,390 27% 3,990 6%
Recent immigrants 20,090 67% 7,880 26% 2,020 7%
 1986-1995 immigrants 12,990 66% 5,390 27% 1,340 7%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 3,930 69% 1,380 24% 400 7%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 3,170 69% 1,120 25% 280 6%
All households 228,870 64% 101,810 29% 25,850 7%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Home ownership less common among recent immigrants

Only three in ten households consisting exclusively of very recent immigrants own their home. This compares to over two-thirds of Canadian-born households and four out of five households of earlier immigrants who own their homes. Recent immigrant households in Edmonton are much more likely to own their homes than recent immigrant households in Canada as a whole.

Figure F-1: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—home ownership, by household type, Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

Figure F-1

Note: For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Date Modified: