Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Halifax—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part B: Who Are the Recent Immigrants?

Origin, immigration category and religion

Asian origins are increasingly common

Halifax’s immigrants come from all over the world and represent a diversity of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Over the past several decades there has been a considerable change in the source countries of immigrants. In 2001, for example, there were 4,400 residents of Halifax who had landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001. The most common country of birth for these very recent immigrants was China, accounting for 9% of very recent immigrants, followed by the United States, supplying 7%. The ten most common countries of birth—China, United States, United Kingdom, South Korea, Yugoslavia, India, Philippines, Russian Federation, Iran and Syria—combined accounted for 40% of these very recent immigrants. Only three of these countries were in the top ten countries of birth for immigrants who landed in Canada before 1986.

Table B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration—top ten countries of birth, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
All immigrants
Rank Country Number Share
1 United Kingdom 5,740 24%
2 United States 3,330 14%
3 Lebanon 1,150 5%
4 Germany 960 4%
5 India 920 4%
6 China, People’s Republic of 830 3%
7 Netherlands 590 2%
8 Greece 580 2%
9 Poland 570 2%
10 Yugoslavia, Former 510 2%
Top ten countries 15,180 62%
All other countries 9,210 38%
Total 24,390 100%
Immigrated before 1986
1 United Kingdom 5,080 35%
2 United States 2,360 16%
3 Lebanon 700 5%
4 Germany 660 4%
5 Greece 560 4%
6 India 520 4%
7 Netherlands 510 3%
8 Italy 400 3%
9 Poland 290 2%
10 Viet Nam 260 2%
Top ten countries 11,340 77%
All other countries 3,330 23%
Total 14,670 100%
Immigrated 1986-1995
1 United States 680 13%
2 United Kingdom 490 9%
3 Lebanon 400 8%
4 India 270 5%
5 Poland 260 5%
6 China, People’s Republic of 230 4%
7 Germany 210 4%
8 Hong Kong 200 4%
9 Viet Nam 180 3%
10 Philippines 150 3%
Top ten countries 3,070 58%
All other countries 2,220 42%
Total 5,290 100%
Immigrated 1996-2001
1 China, People’s Republic of 390 9%
2 United States 300 7%
3 United Kingdom 180 4%
4 South Korea 170 4%
5 Yugoslavia, Former 140 3%
6 India 130 3%
7 Philippines 120 3%
8 Russian Federation 110 3%
9 Iran 110 3%
10 Syria 100 2%
Top ten countries 1,750 40%
All other countries 2,680 60%
Total 4,430 100%

Among Halifax’s earlier immigrants—those arriving in Canada before 1986—the United Kingdom and the United States were the most common countries of birth, accounting as a whole for one-half of this group. These two countries accounted for 60% of Halifax’s immigrants who landed in Canada before 1961.

In general, the birth origins of Halifax’s immigrant population vary in relation to the period of immigration. European and United States birth origins are predominant among those who immigrated in the 1950s, the 1960s and, to a lesser extent, the 1970s, and Asian birth origins are increasingly common among those who immigrated in the 1980s and 1990s.

Halifax’s share of recent immigrants varies by country of birth

Halifax does not account for a sizeable proportion of any recent immigrant group. The largest group proportionately is Syrians, with 1.4% of the Syrian recent immigrant population in Canada living in Halifax. This is slightly higher than Halifax’s share of the total population of Canada, which stands at 1.2%, and one percentage point higher than Halifax’s share of Canada’s immigrants as a whole (0.4%). Other recent immigrant groups in Halifax that have the largest proportions (measured as a percentage of the total national population of each group) are immigrants from the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and several countries in the Middle East. The share of the country’s recent immigrant population living in Halifax is lower than that of the Canadian-born population, except for recent immigrants born in Syria.

Table B-2: Recent immigrants in Canada by country of birth and percentage residing in Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
Country of Birth Total recent immigrants to Canada Share residing in Halifax
Syria 10,340 1.4%
All Canadian-born 23,991,910 1.4%
United States 73,860 1.3%
Egypt 16,970 1.3%
Germany 22,810 1.3%
Total population 29,639,000 1.2%
Lebanon 43,930 1.0%
United Kingdom 69,660 1.0%
Iraq 22,300 0.8%
Ethiopia 12,080 0.6%
Bosnia and Herzegovina 23,170 0.5%
Yugoslavia, Former 35,860 0.5%
Russian Federation 35,950 0.5%
South Korea 50,970 0.5%
All immigrants 5,448,490 0.4%
France 27,500 0.4%
All recent immigrants 2,491,850 0.4%
Afghanistan 20,670 0.3%
Viet Nam 72,330 0.3%
Poland 91,140 0.3%
China, People’s Republic of 236,930 0.3%
Sri Lanka 80,080 0.2%
Iran 61,560 0.2%
India 197,680 0.2%
Ukraine 25,530 0.2%
Pakistan 64,020 0.2%
Philippines 161,130 0.2%
Taiwan 60,530 0.2%
Hong Kong 168,770 0.2%
Romania 43,200 0.1%

Note: Table B-2 lists all countries that are the place of birth of at least 10,000 recent immigrants living in Canada in 2001, with Halifax’s share being 0.1% or more.

High share of economic immigrants

The number of immigrants who reported Halifax as their destination when they landed in Canada increased by 7,300 between the second half of the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s and decreased by 2,200 in the second half of the 1990s. The rise was concentrated in the economic immigrant class. Throughout the 1990s, four in five immigrants arriving in Canada and destined for Halifax entered through the economic category.

Table B-3: Recent immigrants by period of immigration—landings by immigration category, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 1986-2000 (number and percentage distribution)
  1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000
Family class 1,240 26% 1,470 12% 970 10%
Economic immigrants 2,040 43% 9,530 79% 7,840 79%
Refugees 1,410 30% 1,030 9% 1,120 11%
Other immigrants 60 1% 70 1% 10 0%
Total 4,750 100% 12,100 100% 9,930 100%

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2002 (data set).

Note: The 2001 Census did not ask immigrants about the immigration categories through which they were admitted to Canada. The information in Table B-3 was obtained from records at Citizenship and Immigration Canada and pertains to the time of landing. Immigration categories are described in the Glossary.

In absolute numbers, immigrants entering through the family class increased slightly in the first half of the 1990s, as compared to the second half of the 1980s, but in relative numbers, as a share of total immigrants, immigrants entering through the family class fell by half. Immigrants in the family class are a small group, as immigrants in Halifax bring fewer family members compared to immigrants in other parts of Canada. Within the family class, the number of spouses remained steady during the three five-year periods. The number of other relatives—parents and grandparents, sons and daughters and fiancés—fell sharply from almost 700 during the 1991-1995 period to one-half of that number during the 1996-2000 period.

As for refugees, both government-assisted and privately sponsored refugees declined somewhat in number. Two thousand government-sponsored refugees were destined to Halifax when they landed during the 1986-1995 period, and only 900 during the next five years. Forty privately sponsored refugees entered in the second half of the 1990s, less than one-fifth of the number that entered in the second half of the 1980s.

As for economic immigrants, Halifax attracted a large number of entrepreneurs and their families: 6,100 in the first half of the 1990s and 3,700 in the second half of the 1990s, compared to 2,200 and 3,500 skilled workers and their families, respectively, during the same periods. This pattern contrasts with the pattern for Canada as a whole, where immigrants who entered as skilled workers far outnumbered entrepreneurs.

Religions changing with countries of origin

Recent immigrants have brought to Halifax several religions that were virtually absent before 1986. While four in ten very recent immigrants are Christians, more than one-third are Muslims. The large presence of non-Christian religions in Halifax is very recent.

Table B-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—religious affiliation, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born Immigrants Immigrated before 1986 Immigrated 1986-1995 Immigrated 1996-2001
Roman Catholic 125,260 6,330 4,030 1,410 880
Protestant 154,250 7,080 5,680 890 550
Orthodox Christian 1,360 1,420 810 360 260
Other Christian 4,320 850 440 270 120
Muslim 280 2,510 140 750 1,610
Buddhist 500 840 210 500 130
Hindu 300 650 330 230 100
Sikh 70 110 100 10
Other 3,140 520 410 40 60
No religion 40,150 4,080 2,510 850 730
Total 329,610 24,390 14,660 5,290 4,440
 
Roman Catholic 38% 26% 27% 27% 20%
Protestant 47% 29% 39% 17% 12%
Orthodox Christian 0% 6% 5% 7% 6%
Other Christian 1% 3% 3% 5% 3%
Muslim 0% 10% 1% 14% 36%
Buddhist 0% 3% 1% 9% 3%
Hindu 0% 3% 2% 4% 2%
Sikh 0% 0% 1% 0% 0%
Other 1% 2% 3% 1% 1%
No religion 12% 17% 17% 16% 16%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Note: Religions are listed in order of their share of the population of Canada, from highest to lowest, with Christian religions grouped together.

Roman Catholics and Protestants are relatively more numerous among the Canadian-born than among all immigrant cohorts in Halifax. Nearly one-half of the Canadian-born are Protestant, with the Anglican Church having the largest following among the major Protestant churches, accounting for 17%. Close to 10% of immigrants adhere to an orthodox Christian religion or a Christian denomination other than Protestant or Roman Catholic, something very rare among the Canadian-born.

Age and gender

More than four in ten recent immigrants are young adults

The age distribution of the very recent immigrant population (those landing between 1996 and 2001) is markedly different from that of the Canadian-born population, with a larger proportion of persons aged 25 to 44 and proportionally fewer seniors and persons aged 45 to 64. In 1996, more than four in ten of recent immigrants living in Halifax were between the ages of 25 and 44, compared to one-third of Canadian-born individuals in this age group. Children under 15 accounted for one quarter of the recent immigrant population compared with one-fifth of the Canadian-born population.

Table B-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 31,410 23,850 56,960 39,660 19,290 171,160
Immigrants 880 1,080 3,790 4,280 2,380 12,390
 Immigrated before 1986 0 160 1,570 3,400 2,220 7,350
 Immigrated 1986-1995 200 540 1,180 630 130 2,670
 Immigrated 1996-2001 680 380 1,040 250 40 2,380
Men
Canadian-born 32,850 22,510 52,900 36,480 13,720 158,460
Immigrants 750 1,190 3,520 4,580 1,970 12,000
 Immigrated before 1986 0 190 1,680 3,620 1,840 7,330
 Immigrated 1986-1995 280 580 980 700 100 2,620
 Immigrated 1996-2001 470 420 870 280 30 2,060
Total
Canadian-born 64,250 46,350 109,860 76,140 33,010 329,610
Immigrants 1,640 2,260 7,300 8,860 4,340 24,390
 Immigrated before 1986 0 360 3,250 7,020 4,050 14,670
 Immigrated 1986-1995 490 1,120 2,150 1,330 230 5,290
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,150 800 1,910 520 60 4,430
 
Women
Canadian-born 19% 14% 33% 23% 10% 100%
Immigrants 7% 9% 30% 36% 18% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 2% 22% 48% 28% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9% 21% 41% 25% 4% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 26% 18% 43% 12% 1% 100%
Total population 19% 14% 33% 24% 11% 100%

These differences in age structure are to some degree a result of how we define immigrants and the Canadian-born. The immigrant population grows older like the Canadian population but does not renew itself in the same way, as children born in Canada to immigrants are not considered immigrants. Thus, there are no persons under 15 years of age among immigrants who landed before 1986, and the older age groups are over-represented among these earlier immigrants. By the same token, the share of children among the Canadian-born is large as it includes children born in Canada to immigrant parents.

The age structure of very recent immigrants closely resembles age at landing. Immigrants tend to arrive in Canada during their prime working-age years. This was the case among immigrants who landed more than 30 years ago, and it is still the case today. It is therefore not surprising that a large share of very recent immigrants were in the 25 to 44 age group.

Many of the characteristics and circumstances described in this profile vary with age. Differences between immigrants or groups of immigrants and the Canadian-born often are at least in part a reflection of differences in the age structure.

Figure B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, by age, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure B-1

More women than men

The proportion of women in the recent immigrant population in Halifax is the same as that in the Canadian-born population, but for some countries of birth it is much higher. More than 65% of recent immigrants from China, the United States and South Korea are women.

Table B-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage of women, by age, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Under 15
years
15 to 24
years
25 to 44
years
45 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total
Canadian-born 49% 51% 52% 52% 58% 52%
Immigrants 54% 48% 52% 48% 55% 51%
 Immigrated before 1986 45% 48% 48% 55% 50%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 41% 48% 55% 47% 56% 50%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 59% 48% 54% 47% 58% 54%

There are 400 more women than men among the 9,700 recent immigrants in Halifax. The number of women is particularly high among recent immigrants from the Philippines (170 more women than men out of 270 recent immigrants) and Germany (100 more women than men out of 290 recent immigrants).

As women on average live longer than men, they make up a large share of persons aged 65 years and over. But the higher proportion of women among recent immigrants is not related to age. For instance, over half of recent immigrants aged 25 to 44 from the Philippines are women. Some of them have obtained permanent resident status after a period of employment as live-in caregivers.

At the opposite end of the spectrum of the gender mix are Iraq, the Russian Federation and Yugoslavia. Sixty percent or more of recent immigrants from these countries are men. Men outnumber women by 40 among recent immigrants from Iraq and the Russian Federation.

The gender balance, by country of origin, has not changed greatly since 1996.

Language and education

Almost all very recent immigrants speak English or French

A large majority of Halifax’s immigrants 15 years or age and over reported being able to carry on a conversation in at least one of Canada’s two official languages. Even among very recent immigrants, who landed in Canada from 1996 to 2001, almost all (99% of men and 96% of women) reported being able to speak an official language in May 2001. Less than one in ten of these very recent immigrants could not speak either official language. Knowledge of official languages was also almost universal among those who immigrated in earlier periods: 97% of those arriving between 1986 and 1995 and 99% of those arriving before 1986 indicated that they were able to speak an official language.

The proportion of Halifax’s immigrants able to carry on a conversation in English or French does not vary much among age groups. Almost all very recent immigrants reported that they were able to converse in an official language.

Table B-7: Very recent immigrants (immigrated between 1996-2001)—15 years of age and over—knowledge of official languages, by age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  English only French only Neither French nor English Both French and English Total
Women
15 to 24 years 350 30 380
25 to 44 years 940 40 50 1,030
45 to 64 years 220 20 10 250
65 years and over 10 10 20
15 years and over 1,530 100 80 1,700
Men
15 to 24 years 400 20 420
25 to 44 years 760 90 20 870
45 to 64 years 240 30 270
65 years and over 30 30
15 years and over 1,430 140 20 1,590
Total
15 to 24 years 750 50 790
25 to 44 years 1,700 10 130 70 1,910
45 to 64 years 460 50 20 530
65 years and over 40 10 20 70
15 years and over 2,950 10 240 100 3,290
 
Women
15 to 24 years 92% 0% 8% 0% 100%
25 to 44 years 91% 0% 4% 5% 100%
45 to 64 years 88% 0% 8% 4% 100%
65 years and over 50% 0% 0% 50% 100%
15 years and over 90% 0% 6% 5% 100%
Men
15 to 24 years 95% 0% 5% 0% 100%
25 to 44 years 87% 0% 10% 2% 100%
45 to 64 years 89% 0% 11% 0% 100%
65 years and over 100% 0% 0% 0% 100%
15 years and over 90% 0% 9% 1% 100%
Total
15 to 24 years 95% 0% 6% 0% 100%
25 to 44 years 89% 1% 7% 4% 100%
45 to 64 years 87% 0% 9% 4% 100%
65 years and over 57% 0% 14% 29% 100%
15 years and over 90% 0% 7% 3% 100%

Ability to converse in either or both official languages has improved with the very recent immigrant cohort: 4% more men and 5% more women had this ability in 2001, compared to a similar cohort (those who landed within the five years prior to the census) in 1996. This may reflect the increase in the number of economic immigrants and perhaps also greater awareness among immigrants of the need to speak Canada’s languages before and after landing.

More than one-half of recent immigrants speak a foreign language at home

For the majority of Halifax’s recent immigrants, the language spoken most often at home is one other than English or French. More than one-half of immigrants who landed between 1996 and 2001 most often speak a foreign language in their homes.

The use of foreign languages is not as high among other immigrant cohorts. One-third of those who immigrated between 1986 and 1995 and one in ten of those who immigrated prior to 1986 most often spoke a foreign language at home.

Figure B-2: Immigrants by period of immigration—15 years of age and over —use of a foreign language at home, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

Figure B-2

Many university graduates among recent immigrants

Immigrants boast a high number of university graduates, especially recent immigrants. Canada is a world leader with respect to educational attainment of the population. In this context, the high educational attainment of immigrants and recent immigrants is particularly noteworthy. This high proportion of university graduates is most likely a result of immigrant selection policy, which places a large emphasis on education for immigrants in the economic category.

When education levels are compared by age group, the younger generation has a much higher level of education than older groups, whether born inside or outside Canada. One in seven Canadian-born persons under 45 years of age has not completed high school, compared to more than one half of seniors. Two-thirds of Canadian-born persons under 45 years of age have a post-secondary diploma or degree, compared to one-third of men and women 65 years of age and over. A similar difference in educational qualifications is observed among immigrants.

Both with respect to the share that has no high school diploma and the share that has some post-secondary diploma or degree, earlier and recent immigrants have a level of educational attainment that is higher than that of persons born in Canada.

Table B-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—highest level of education, by gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 6,850 33,070 26,720 44,730 28,390 139,750
Immigrants 530 2,050 2,240 3,050 3,640 11,510
 Immigrated before 1986 410 1,350 1,340 2,120 2,130 7,350
 Immigrated 1986-1995 70 430 500 580 890 2,470
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50 270 400 350 630 1,700
Men
Canadian-born 7,210 29,810 24,490 40,100 24,000 125,610
Immigrants 430 1,520 1,820 3,140 4,350 11,250
 Immigrated before 1986 360 900 1,060 2,260 2,740 7,320
 Immigrated 1986-1995 70 340 390 630 910 2,340
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10 270 360 250 700 1,590
Total
Canadian-born 14,060 62,880 51,210 84,830 52,400 265,360
Immigrants 960 3,570 4,060 6,190 8,000 22,750
 Immigrated before 1986 770 2,270 2,400 4,380 4,870 14,670
 Immigrated 1986-1995 140 770 900 1,210 1,800 4,810
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50 550 760 600 1,330 3,280
 
Women
Canadian-born 5% 24% 19% 32% 20% 100%
Immigrants 5% 18% 19% 26% 32% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 6% 18% 18% 29% 29% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 17% 20% 23% 36% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3% 16% 23% 21% 37% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 6% 24% 19% 32% 19% 100%
Immigrants 4% 13% 16% 28% 39% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 12% 14% 31% 37% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 14% 17% 27% 39% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1% 17% 23% 16% 44% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 5% 24% 19% 32% 20% 100%
Immigrants 4% 16% 18% 27% 35% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 15% 16% 30% 33% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 16% 19% 25% 37% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2% 17% 23% 18% 41% 100%

Table B-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 years of age and over, with no high school diploma or with post-secondary diploma or degree—by age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  No high school diploma With post-secondary diploma or degree
  25 to 44
years
45 to 65
years
65 years
and over
25 to 44
years
45 to 65
years
65 years
and over
Women
Canadian-born 8,440 11,250 11,220 38,430 22,360 5,720
Immigrants 480 790 1,020 2,680 2,780 910
 Immigrated before 1986 190 620 950 1,110 2,240 850
 Immigrated 1986-2001 300 180 60 1,580 550 80
Men
Canadian-born 9,490 9,970 7,250 33,680 21,060 4,840
Immigrants 350 590 570 2,580 3,490 1,190
 Immigrated before 1986 220 490 520 1,120 2,710 1,130
 Immigrated 1986-2001 130 100 30 1,460 790 50
Total
Canadian-born 17,920 21,220 18,480 72,100 43,410 10,560
Immigrants 830 1,380 1,590 5,260 6,270 2,100
 Immigrated before 1986 400 1,100 1,480 2,220 4,940 1,970
 Immigrated 1986-2001 440 280 100 3,030 1,330 150
 
Women
Canadian-born 15% 28% 58% 67% 56% 30%
Immigrants 13% 18% 43% 71% 65% 38%
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 18% 43% 70% 66% 38%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 14% 20% 36% 71% 62% 48%
Men
Canadian-born 18% 27% 53% 64% 58% 35%
Immigrants 10% 13% 29% 73% 76% 60%
 Immigrated before 1986 13% 13% 28% 67% 75% 61%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 7% 10% 24% 79% 81% 40%
Total
Canadian-born 16% 28% 56% 66% 57% 32%
Immigrants 11% 16% 37% 72% 71% 48%
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 16% 37% 68% 70% 49%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 11% 15% 33% 75% 72% 51%

Recent immigrants add to Halifax’s pool of science and health professionals

Approximately five in ten men who immigrated after 1985 and have a post-secondary diploma or degree majored in physical sciences, engineering or trades. This compares to six out of ten Canadian-born men. Among very recent immigrant women with a post-secondary diploma or degree, a quarter have studied some physical science or technology. This is more than twice the share of Canadian-born women in this field of study.

Table B-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, with a post-secondary diploma or degree—major field of study, by gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Physical sciences, engineering and trades Social sciences, education and arts Commerce, manage-
ment and business administration
Health professions and related technologies Total
Women
Canadian-born 8,940 25,520 25,670 12,870 72,980
Immigrants 1,050 2,700 1,550 1,360 6,660
 Immigrated before 1986 260 640 270 280 1,450
 Immigrated 1986-1995 530 1,760 1,060 880 4,220
 Immigrated 1996-2001 270 290 220 200 970
Men
Canadian-born 36,750 13,860 11,070 2,360 64,030
Immigrants 4,060 1,840 900 670 7,460
 Immigrated before 1986 770 420 200 160 1,540
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,810 1,230 560 370 4,960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 470 190 150 140 950
Total
Canadian-born 45,680 39,380 36,730 15,220 137,010
Immigrants 5,110 4,540 2,440 2,030 14,120
 Immigrated before 1986 1,040 1,060 460 440 3,000
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,340 3,000 1,620 1,260 9,210
 Immigrated 1996-2001 740 490 370 330 1,930
 
Women
Canadian-born 12% 35% 35% 18% 100%
Immigrants 16% 41% 23% 20% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 18% 44% 19% 19% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 42% 25% 21% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 27% 30% 23% 20% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 57% 22% 17% 4% 100%
Immigrants 54% 25% 12% 9% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 50% 27% 13% 10% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 57% 25% 11% 7% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50% 20% 15% 15% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 33% 29% 27% 11% 100%
Immigrants 36% 32% 17% 14% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 35% 35% 15% 15% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 36% 33% 18% 14% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 38% 25% 19% 17% 100%

Recent immigrants are also strongly represented in the social sciences, education and the arts, with the proportion of recent immigrants with post-secondary degrees or diplomas in these fields only marginally smaller than that of the Canadian-born. Over one-third of Canadian-born women and nearly one-quarter of recent immigrant women have past-secondary degrees or diplomas in commerce, management and business administration. A much higher proportion of very recent immigrant men with post-secondary degrees or diplomas studied health professions and related technologies than the Canadian-born.

Recent immigrants more likely to attend school

Very recent immigrants are relatively likely to be in school. School attendance is at least twice as high for this group as for the Canadian-born, in both the 25-44 and 45-64 age groups.

Table B-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, attending school—by age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years
Women
Canadian-born 14,880 6,730 1,340 62% 12% 3%
Immigrants 840 620 270 79% 16% 6%
 Immigrated before 1986 130 180 170 81% 11% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 440 160 70 81% 14% 11%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 290 280 30 75% 27% 12%
Men
Canadian-born 13,590 5,630 810 60% 11% 2%
Immigrants 940 640 210 79% 18% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 160 220 130 84% 13% 3%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 420 170 80 74% 17% 11%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 360 270 30 87% 30% 9%
Total
Canadian-born 28,470 12,360 2,140 61% 11% 3%
Immigrants 1,780 1,260 480 79% 17% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 270 390 280 75% 12% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 860 330 130 77% 15% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 640 560 60 80% 29% 11%

School attendance, of course, is much higher in the youngest age group, persons of 15 to 24 years of age, than in older age groups. Here we find a much higher rate of attendance for recent immigrants than for the Canadian-born, both men and women.

School attendance is also high among young earlier immigrants. For this group, language is not likely to be an issue, since they landed as young children.

School attendance rates for all recent immigrants groups are higher in 2001 than in 1996. In particular, for men and women aged 45 to 64, the attendance rates have more than doubled since 1996.

Date Modified: