Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Halifax—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower the more recent the landing

Very recent immigrants are not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is rather more like that of the Canadian-born. A pattern of adjustment and increasing involvement of immigrants in the Canadian labour market with longer stay is evident in all three age groups, for both men and women. Labour force participation of all groups did not change greatly between 1996 and 2001.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 16,990 46,630 24,610 88,230
Immigrants 610 2,590 2,680 5,870
 Immigrated before 1986 130 1,260 2,200 3,580
 Immigrated 1986-1995 310 830 360 1,500
 Immigrated 1996-2001 160 500 120 780
Men
Canadian-born 15,510 48,590 27,700 91,790
Immigrants 610 3,140 3,830 7,570
 Immigrated before 1986 120 1,570 3,020 4,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 330 910 610 1,850
 Immigrated 1996-2001 160 670 200 1,020
Total
Canadian-born 32,500 95,220 52,310 180,020
Immigrants 1,210 5,720 6,510 13,440
 Immigrated before 1986 250 2,830 5,220 8,290
 Immigrated 1986-1995 640 1,730 980 3,350
 Immigrated 1996-2001 320 1,160 320 1,790

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 71% 82% 62% 73% 88,230
Immigrants 57% 68% 63% 64% 5,870
 Immigrated before 1986 78% 80% 64% 70% 3,580
 Immigrated 1986-1995 58% 70% 58% 64% 1,500
 Immigrated 1996-2001 42% 48% 49% 47% 780
Men
Canadian-born 69% 92% 76% 82% 91,790
Immigrants 51% 89% 84% 82% 7,570
 Immigrated before 1986 62% 93% 84% 86% 4,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 58% 93% 88% 83% 1,850
 Immigrated 1996-2001 38% 77% 71% 65% 1,020
Total
Canadian-born 70% 87% 69% 77% 180,020
Immigrants 54% 78% 73% 73% 13,440
 Immigrated before 1986 69% 87% 74% 78% 8,290
 Immigrated 1986-1995 57% 80% 74% 73% 3,350
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40% 61% 61% 56% 1,790

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-1, women

Figure D-1, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education, the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area 2001 (number)
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 14,880 18,730 31,510 23,130 88,230
Immigrants 740 1,150 1,490 2,490 5,870
 Immigrated before 1986 500 640 920 1,520 3,580
 Immigrated 1986-1995 170 340 400 610 1,500
 Immigrated 1996-2001 80 180 170 360 780
Men
Canadian-born 1,970 17,220 19,880 32,300 91,790
Immigrants 120 790 1,250 2,150 7,570
 Immigrated before 1986 100 460 730 1,390 4,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 40 180 330 530 1,850
 Immigrated 1996-2001 0 140 190 220 1,020
Total
Canadian-born 2,970 31,100 38,620 63,810 180,020
Immigrants 220 1,440 2,410 3,630 13,440
 Immigrated before 1986 180 890 1,370 2,330 8,290
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50 340 670 940 3,350
 Immigrated 1996-2001 0 210 370 380 1,790

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 52% 77% 78% 85% 73%
Immigrants 47% 64% 62% 74% 64%
 Immigrated before 1986 61% 69% 61% 80% 70%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 39% 69% 73% 70% 64%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 26% 45% 49% 57% 47%
Men
Canadian-born 64% 87% 88% 91% 82%
Immigrants 66% 78% 87% 85% 82%
 Immigrated before 1986 74% 84% 85% 90% 86%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 57% 88% 88% 85% 83%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 49% 54% 90% 71% 65%
Total
Canadian-born 58% 82% 83% 88% 77%
Immigrants 56% 71% 75% 80% 73%
 Immigrated before 1986 69% 76% 74% 85% 78%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 47% 76% 82% 78% 73%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 36% 50% 64% 63% 56%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

For most education levels, there is a standard pattern of relatively low participation rates for very recently landed immigrants and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born for earlier cohorts. An exception to this pattern occurs for men with only a high school diploma and for men and women with college or trade diplomas. Those who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period participated in the labour force at a very high rate, but immigrants who landed earlier have a lower rate of labour force participation.

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-2, women

Figure D-2, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Unemployment not uncommon during initial years

Recent immigrants are more likely to experience unemployment than earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born. Recent immigrant men in Halifax experienced unemployment rates from 4% to 11%, depending on their age group, and recent immigrant women experienced unemployment rates of 8% to 19%, depending on their age group. Unemployment is significantly lower among persons who immigrated before 1986 and the Canadian-born, except in the case of men aged 15 to 24 and 45 to 64. Immigrant women experience more unemployment than men during their first 15 years in Canada.

Overall, the unemployment rate declined by one to two percentage points since 1996. Young and older recent immigrants recorded the largest declines.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 2,310 2,660 1,350 6,310
Immigrants 90 250 120 460
 Immigrated before 1986 0 100 80 180
 Immigrated 1986-2001 90 160 40 290
Men
Canadian-born 2,630 2,720 1,340 6,690
Immigrants 70 190 180 440
 Immigrated before 1986 10 60 130 200
 Immigrated 1986-2001 60 130 40 220
Total
Canadian-born 4,950 5,370 2,690 13,010
Immigrants 160 430 290 880
 Immigrated before 1986 10 160 220 380
 Immigrated 1986-2001 150 270 80 490

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 14% 6% 5% 7% 6,310
Immigrants 15% 10% 4% 8% 460
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 8% 4% 5% 180
 Immigrated 1986-2001 19% 12% 8% 13% 290
Men
Canadian-born 17% 6% 5% 7% 6,690
Immigrants 12% 6% 5% 6% 440
 Immigrated before 1986 8% 4% 4% 4% 200
 Immigrated 1986-2001 11% 8% 4% 8% 220
Total
Canadian-born 15% 6% 5% 7% 13,010
Immigrants 13% 8% 4% 7% 880
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 5% 4% 5% 380
 Immigrated 1986-2001 15% 9% 6% 10% 490

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,680 1,740 1,610 1,290 6,310
Immigrants 50 140 140 140 460
 Immigrated before 1986 20 70 50 50 180
 Immigrated 1986-2001 30 90 70 100 290
Men
Canadian-born 2,150 1,700 1,950 910 6,690
Immigrants 70 90 140 140 440
 Immigrated before 1986 30 40 70 70 200
 Immigrated 1986-2001 40 40 60 70 220
Total
Canadian-born 3,820 3,440 3,550 2,200 13,010
Immigrants 120 220 270 270 880
 Immigrated before 1986 60 100 130 110 380
 Immigrated 1986-2001 30 60 80 80 250

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by level of education and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 11% 9% 5% 6% 7%
Immigrants 6% 12% 9% 5% 8%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 11% 5% 3% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 12% 10% 8% 6% 9%
Men
Canadian-born 11% 9% 6% 4% 7%
Immigrants 8% 7% 6% 4% 6%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 5% 5% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 11% 6% 6% 4% 7%
Total
Canadian-born 11% 9% 6% 5% 7%
Immigrants 7% 9% 7% 5% 7%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 7% 6% 3% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 6% 9% 8% 6% 7%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Share of men and women with jobs increases with length of stay

Four in ten very recent immigrant women aged 15 to 64 are employed, compared to seven in ten Canadian-born women. For men the difference is smaller: six in ten very recent immigrants are employed compared to three in four Canadian-born men. As shown in the previous pages, these differences in employment rates mainly reflect differences in labour force participation rates.

Among immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is generally more common than among the more recently landed. The employment rate of those who landed before 1986 is comparable to the employment rate of the Canadian-born, and men in this cohort who are age 25 to 64 have surpassed the employment levels of the Canadian-born.

In 2001, employment rates were significantly higher among the younger and older groups of recent immigrant men than for the same age groups in 1996, but among recent immigrants of prime working age employment rates were somewhat lower. Immigrant men experienced a greater change than their Canadian-born counterparts. Among immigrant women, the changes were more muted and similar to those of Canadian-born women.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 14,680 43,990 23,260 81,920
Immigrants 520 2,330 2,560 5,410
 Immigrated before 1986 130 1,170 2,120 3,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 270 770 350 1,390
 Immigrated 1996-2001 130 400 110 630
Men
Canadian-born 12,880 45,870 26,360 85,100
Immigrants 540 2,960 3,650 7,140
 Immigrated before 1986 110 1,510 2,880 4,500
 Immigrated 1986-1995 290 840 580 1,710
 Immigrated 1996-2001 140 610 190 930
Total
Canadian-born 27,550 89,860 49,620 167,020
Immigrants 1,060 5,290 6,220 12,560
 Immigrated before 1986 240 2,680 5,000 7,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 560 1,610 920 3,090
 Immigrated 1996-2001 260 1,010 290 1,550

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 15 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 62% 77% 59% 68% 81,920
Immigrants 48% 62% 60% 59% 5,410
 Immigrated before 1986 78% 74% 62% 66% 3,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50% 65% 55% 59% 1,390
 Immigrated 1996-2001 33% 38% 43% 38% 630
Men
Canadian-born 57% 87% 72% 76% 85,100
Immigrants 45% 84% 80% 77% 7,140
 Immigrated before 1986 56% 90% 80% 82% 4,500
 Immigrated 1986-1995 51% 87% 83% 76% 1,710
 Immigrated 1996-2001 32% 71% 67% 60% 930
Total
Canadian-born 59% 82% 65% 72% 167,020
Immigrants 47% 72% 70% 68% 12,560
 Immigrated before 1986 66% 83% 71% 75% 7,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50% 75% 69% 67% 3,090
 Immigrated 1996-2001 32% 53% 56% 48% 1,550

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs more common for very recent immigrants aged 25 to 64

The proportion of employed persons who work part-time varies considerably by age and gender, both for immigrants and the Canadian-born. Half or more of employed young adults work part-time. Twenty percent to 34% of employed women aged 25 to 64 work part-time, varying by cohort, while 6% to 33% (6% to 13% if very recent immigrant men are excluded) of employed men aged 25 to 64 work part-time, again varying by cohort.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 9,770 10,070 6,140 25,970
Immigrants 410 670 830 1,900
 Immigrated before 1986 80 280 680 1,030
 Immigrated 1986-1995 270 270 130 670
 Immigrated 1996-1999 60 120 20 200
Men
Canadian-born 8,180 3,150 2,520 13,840
Immigrants 430 300 400 1,130
 Immigrated before 1986 80 90 270 440
 Immigrated 1986-1995 260 100 80 430
 Immigrated 1996-1999 90 120 60 260
Total
Canadian-born 17,950 13,220 8,650 39,810
Immigrants 820 970 1,240 3,030
 Immigrated before 1986 150 370 950 1,470
 Immigrated 1986-1995 520 370 210 1,100
 Immigrated 1996-1999 150 240 80 470

Note: Tables D-11 and D-12 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Part-time employment is more common for very recent immigrant men aged 25 to 44 or 45 to 64 than for other men, but this is not so for those aged 15 to 24. For very recent immigrant women, the situation is different, with employment levels comparable to those of earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born.

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed working mostly part-time, by age and gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 55% 21% 24% 28%
Immigrants 66% 25% 29% 31%
 Immigrated before 1986 58% 21% 28% 27%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 71% 30% 34% 41%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 60% 28% 20% 31%
Men
Canadian-born 49% 6% 9% 15%
Immigrants 61% 10% 10% 15%
 Immigrated before 1986 48% 6% 9% 9%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 67% 11% 13% 23%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 60% 23% 33% 32%
Total
Canadian-born 52% 13% 16% 21%
Immigrants 63% 17% 18% 22%
 Immigrated before 1986 51% 13% 17% 17%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 68% 21% 21% 31%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 60% 25% 30% 32%

Note: Tables D-11 and D-12 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

The share of jobs that was part-time was significantly lower in 2001 than in 1996 for very recent immigrant women 25 years of age and over. By contrast, very recent immigrant men have seen a rise in part-time work with increases in the order of ten percentage points. All other groups experienced smaller changes.

Different mix of occupations

Employed very recent immigrants are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in sales and service occupations and health and science occupations. Nearly three in ten employed very recent immigrants work in sales and service jobs, compared to almost one in four Canadian-born persons.

Recent immigrant men work in management and social occupations in higher proportions than the Canadian-born, but immigrants in the earlier cohort work in these occupations in even higher proportions. This seems to be a trend particular to some smaller Canadian cities, as it is not seen in major urban centres. There are probably many factors that contribute to these patterns, including the selection of immigrants as well as their level of education and field of studies.

Table D-13: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Processing Admin-
istrative
Management and social sciences Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 16,230 1,220 22,140 16,640 740 10,290 67,240
Immigrants 1,130 60 1,120 1,630 130 820 4,900
 Immigrated
 before 1986
660 10 780 1,210 90 530 3,290
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
310 40 230 280 50 200 1,110
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
180 10 90 120 10 90 510
Men
Canadian-born 15,360 3,350 7,810 17,950 17,100 10,680 72,230
Immigrants 1,200 170 500 2,540 820 1,400 6,610
 Immigrated
 before 1986
730 150 320 1,820 510 910 4,400
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
270 40 120 500 230 320 1,420
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
210 0 80 230 80 170 790
Total
Canadian-born 31,580 4,570 29,950 34,580 17,840 20,970 139,470
Immigrants 2,340 240 1,620 4,160 950 2,210 11,510
 Immigrated
 before 1986
1,370 180 1,110 3,020 590 1,440 7,680
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
580 70 350 780 280 510 2,530
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
380 20 170 370 90 270 1,300
 
Women
Canadian-born 24% 2% 33% 25% 1% 15% 67,240
Immigrants 23% 1% 23% 33% 3% 17% 4,900
 Immigrated
 before 1986
20% 0% 24% 37% 3% 16% 3,290
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
27% 3% 21% 25% 4% 18% 1,110
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
35% 2% 18% 24% 2% 18% 510
Men
Canadian-born 21% 5% 11% 25% 24% 15% 72,230
Immigrants 18% 2% 8% 38% 12% 21% 6,610
 Immigrated
 before 1986
17% 3% 7% 41% 12% 21% 4,400
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
19% 3% 8% 35% 16% 22% 1,420
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
27% 0% 10% 29% 10% 22% 790
Total
Canadian-born 23% 3% 21% 25% 13% 15% 139,470
Immigrants 20% 2% 14% 36% 8% 19% 11,510
 Immigrated
 before 1986
18% 2% 14% 39% 8% 19% 7,680
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
23% 3% 14% 31% 11% 20% 2,530
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
29% 2% 13% 29% 7% 20% 1,300

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-3, women

Figure D-3, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Many recent immigrants in hospitality and other services

In Halifax, a large proportion of employed recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 work in the public sector and, for employed recent immigrant women, in hospitality and other services. Proportionately even more of the Canadian-born, however, are employed in the public sector. Compared to many other cities, Halifax has a very large public sector. Recent immigrants are more heavily represented in trade, hospitality and other services than are the Canadian-born. Compared to 1996, employment in business services industries among the very recent immigrant cohort is more prevalent, and employment in hospitality and other services industries and the public sector are less prevalent.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-4, women

Figure D-4, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary

Table D-14: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Con-
struction and Trans-
portation
Trade Business services Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,030 4,410 9,750 12,110 29,180 8,770 67,200
Immigrants 250 190 690 800 2,070 930 4,900
 Immigrated
 before 1986
110 110 490 590 1,520 510 3,300
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
100 70 130 150 430 260 1,100
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
40 10 80 90 150 150 500
Men
Canadian-born 7,700 15,820 11,900 11,240 19,160 6,420 72,200
Immigrants 520 970 860 1,180 2,000 1,090 6,600
 Immigrated
 before 1986
330 640 480 780 1,470 720 4,400
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
110 240 220 270 360 250 1,400
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
90 100 180 140 190 130 800
Total
Canadian-born 10,740 20,230 21,650 23,340 48,340 15,180 139,500
Immigrants 760 1,160 1,560 1,980 4,070 2,020 11,500
 Immigrated
 before 1986
420 750 960 1,360 2,970 1,240 7,700
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
230 290 340 410 780 520 2,500
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
120 120 250 230 340 270 1,300
 
Women
Canadian-born 5% 7% 14% 18% 43% 13% 100%
Immigrants 5% 4% 14% 16% 42% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
3% 3% 15% 18% 46% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
9% 6% 12% 13% 38% 23% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
7% 2% 16% 18% 30% 30% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 11% 22% 16% 16% 27% 9% 100%
Immigrants 8% 15% 13% 18% 30% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
8% 14% 11% 18% 33% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
8% 17% 15% 19% 25% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
11% 12% 22% 18% 24% 16% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 15% 16% 17% 35% 11% 100%
Immigrants 7% 10% 14% 17% 35% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
5% 10% 12% 18% 39% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
9% 11% 13% 16% 31% 21% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
9% 9% 19% 17% 26% 20% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Skill requirements of jobs of recent immigrants higher

The jobs of recent immigrants require higher skills than the jobs of the Canadian-born. Thirty-two percent of jobs of Canadian-born women require the highest level of skill, a university education. For very recent immigrant women, 36% of jobs require a university education; for women who landed before 1986, almost one-half of jobs require a university education. For men the differences between the Canadian-born and very recent immigrants are more pronounced, with just under one-half of very recent immigrants holding jobs that require a university education, compared to only one-third of Canadian-born men.

Table D-15: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 5,570 22,500 17,480 21,700 67,250
Immigrants 410 1,180 1,210 2,120 4,900
 Immigrated before 1986 220 710 830 1,530 3,280
 Immigrated 1986-1995 120 300 290 410 1,120
 Immigrated 1996-2001 60 170 100 180 510
Men
Canadian-born 5,850 19,620 22,900 23,870 72,240
Immigrants 420 1,060 1,580 3,550 6,610
 Immigrated before 1986 220 660 1,080 2,450 4,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 100 250 340 740 1,420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 110 160 180 370 790
Total
Canadian-born 11,410 42,130 40,380 45,570 139,470
Immigrants 820 2,240 2,790 5,660 11,510
 Immigrated before 1986 440 1,370 1,890 3,980 7,680
 Immigrated 1986-1995 220 560 630 1,130 2,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 160 320 280 550 1,290
 
Women
Canadian-born 8% 33% 26% 32% 100%
Immigrants 8% 24% 25% 43% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 7% 22% 25% 47% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 11% 27% 26% 36% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 34% 20% 36% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 8% 27% 32% 33% 100%
Immigrants 6% 16% 24% 54% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 15% 24% 56% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 18% 24% 52% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 14% 20% 22% 47% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 30% 29% 33% 100%
Immigrants 7% 19% 24% 49% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 6% 18% 25% 52% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9% 22% 25% 45% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 12% 25% 21% 42% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The information presented in Table D-15 does not directly indicate whether skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels of jobs of employed recent immigrants with the level of education of employed recent immigrants. This is done in Table D-16 for persons holding a university degree.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-5, women

Figure D-5, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Education of recent immigrant women not fully utilized

The jobs of very recent immigrants with a university degree do not require the same level of skill as the jobs of Canadian-born persons with a university degree. Two-thirds of employed Canadian-born women with a university degree have a job requiring a university degree, but only one half of employed women who immigrated after 1995 have a job at that level and the share is not much higher for women who immigrated in the 10 years before that. Seven in ten Canadian-born men with a university degree but less than two-thirds of very recent immigrant men with a university degree have a job requiring a university education. However, university-level jobs are more common among men who immigrated before 1986 than among Canadian-born men.

Table D-16: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 300 2,930 3,590 12,630 19,430
Immigrants 60 330 460 1,410 2,250
 Immigrated before 1986 20 160 270 990 1,460
 Immigrated 1986-1995 40 90 130 290 530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 90 60 130 260
Men
Canadian-born 280 1,970 3,010 13,130 18,380
Immigrants 70 210 420 2,380 3,070
 Immigrated before 1986 100 270 1,550 1,930
 Immigrated 1986-1995 40 30 90 540 700
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40 70 50 290 450
Total
Canadian-born 580 4,900 6,590 25,750 37,810
Immigrants 130 540 870 3,790 5,310
 Immigrated before 1986 10 270 560 2,550 3,380
 Immigrated 1986-1995 80 130 210 830 1,230
 Immigrated 1996-2001 30 150 100 420 710
 
Women
Canadian-born 2% 15% 18% 65% 100%
Immigrants 2% 15% 20% 63% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 11% 18% 67% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 16% 24% 55% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 0% 33% 21% 50% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 2% 11% 16% 71% 100%
Immigrants 2% 7% 14% 78% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 5% 14% 80% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 4% 12% 78% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 16% 11% 64% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 2% 13% 17% 68% 100%
Immigrants 2% 10% 16% 71% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 8% 16% 75% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 10% 17% 67% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4% 21% 14% 60% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born —25 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates with jobs requiring university education, by gender, Halifax Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

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