Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Hamilton—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part B: Who Are the Recent Immigrants?

Origin, immigration category and religion

Countries of origin changing

Hamilton’s immigrants come from all over the world and represent a diversity of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Over the past several decades there has been a considerable change in the source countries of immigrants. In 2001, for example, there were 18,700 residents of Hamilton who had landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001. The most common country of birth for these immigrants was Yugoslavia, accounting for 9%, closely followed by China which supplied 8%. The ten most common countries of birth, accounting as a whole for 53% of very recent immigrants, were Yugoslavia, China, India, Iraq, Pakistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Philippines, Croatia, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Table B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration—top ten countries of birth, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
All immigrants
Rank Country Number Share
1 United Kingdom 31,490 20%
2 Italy 16,920 11%
3 Former Yugoslavia 13,850 9%
4 Poland 9,080 6%
5 Portugal 6,500 4%
6 Netherlands 5,670 4%
7 India 5,440 4%
8 Germany 5,410 3%
9 United States 5,080 3%
10 Philippines 3,530 2%
Top ten countries 102,970 67%
All other countries 51,690 33%
Total 154,660 100%
Immigrated before 1986
1 United Kingdom 28,580 28%
2 Italy 16,600 16%
3 Former Yugoslavia 7,320 7%
4 Netherlands 5,480 5%
5 Germany 5,030 5%
6 Portugal 4,780 5%
7 Poland 4,280 4%
8 United States 3,600 3%
9 Yugoslavia 2,690 3%
10 India 2,450 2%
Top ten countries 80,810 78%
All other countries 22,730 22%
Total 103,540 100%
Immigrated 1986-1995
1 Poland 4,390 14%
2 United Kingdom 2,370 7%
3 Philippines 1,720 5%
4 India 1,650 5%
5 Portugal 1,610 5%
6 Yugoslavia 1,500 5%
7 Viet Nam 1,430 4%
8 United States 970 3%
9 Iraq 930 3%
10 Croatia 910 3%
Top ten countries 17,480 54%
All other countries 14,960 46%
Total 32,440 100%
Immigrated 1996-2001
1 Yugoslavia 1,660 9%
2 China 1,450 8%
3 India 1,330 7%
4 Iraq 1,150 6%
5 Pakistan 1,060 6%
6 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,040 6%
7 Philippines 680 4%
8 Croatia 590 3%
9 United Kingdom 560 3%
10 United States 520 3%
Top ten countries 10,040 53%
All other countries 8,650 47%
Total 18,690 100%

Among Hamilton’s earlier immigrants—those arriving in Canada before 1986—the United Kingdom and Italy were the most common countries of birth, accounting for 44% of this group.

In general, the birth origins of Hamilton’s immigrant population vary in relation to the period of immigration. European birth origins are predominant among those who immigrated in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, and Asian birth origins are more prevalent among those who immigrated in the 1990s.

A preferred destination for immigrants from the former Yugoslavia

For some immigrant groups, Hamilton is a top destination. For example, of the 11,400 Croatian-born individuals who immigrated since 1986 and were living in Canada in 2001, 1,500 or 13.2% were living in Hamilton. Hamilton is also home to a large share of recent immigrants from Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Iraq.

Table B-2: Recent immigrants in Canada by country of birth and percentage residing in Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
Country of Birth Total recent immigrants to Canada Share residing in Hamilton
Croatia 11,380 13.2%
Iraq 22,300 9.3%
Yugoslavia 35,860 8.8%
Bosnia and Herzegovina 23,170 7.2%
Poland 91,140 5.3%
Portugal 34,120 5.1%
Guatemala 10,580 4.3%
United Kingdom 69,660 4.2%
El Salvador 29,680 3.0%
South Africa 19,890 3.0%
Romania 43,200 2.9%
All immigrants 5,448,490 2.8%
Pakistan 64,020 2.5%
Egypt 16,970 2.4%
Viet Nam 72,330 2.3%
Total population 29,639,000 2.2%
Afghanistan 20,670 2.2%
All Canadian-born 23,991,910 2.1%
All recent immigrants 2,491,850 2.1%
Somalia 18,220 2.0%
United States 73,860 2.0%
Jamaica 48,760 1.8%
Ghana 13,450 1.8%
Syria 10,340 1.8%
Trinidad and Tobago 28,790 1.8%
South Korea 50,970 1.7%
Germany 22,810 1.7%
Bangladesh 19,920 1.5%
Colombia 10,190 1.5%
India 197,680 1.5%
Mexico 24,640 1.5%
Philippines 161,130 1.5%
Iran 61,560 1.3%
Peru 12,590 1.0%
Russian Federation 35,950 1.0%
Ukraine 25,530 1.0%
Lebanon 43,930 1.0%

Note: Table B-2 lists all countries that are the place of birth of at least 10,000 recent immigrants living in Canada in 2001, with Hamilton’s share being 1% or more.

On average, 2.1% of Canada’s recent immigrant population have chosen Hamilton as their place of residence. This is also the share of the Canadian-born population that makes Hamilton its residence. Hamilton is home to a larger share of Canada’s earlier immigrants, and it has 2.8% of all immigrants.

Large numbers of economic immigrants

Statistics published by Citizenship and Immigration Canada show that the number of immigrants who reported Hamilton as their destination when they landed in Canada increased by 1,900 between the second half of the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s and decreased by 4,500 in the second half of the 1990s. The decline was concentrated in the family class. More than two-fifths of very recent immigrants destined for Hamilton entered through the economic category.

Table B-3: Recent immigrants by period of immigration—landings by immigration category, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 1986-2000 (number and percentage distribution)
  1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000
Family class 5,670 35% 7,980 45% 4,870 36%
Economic immigrants 5,450 34% 6,880 38% 5,920 44%
Refugees 4,750 30% 2,930 16% 2,570 19%
Other immigrants 180 1% 120 1% 80 1%
Total 16,040 100% 17,910 100% 13,440 100%

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures, 2002 (data set).

Note: The 2001 Census did not ask immigrants about the immigration categories through which they were admitted to Canada. The information in Table B-3 was obtained from records at Citizenship and Immigration Canada and pertains to the time of landing. Immigration categories are described in the Glossary.

Within the family class, the number of spouses showed little change over the three five-year periods, and in the latest 1996-2000 period amounted to more than one-half of this category. The number of other relatives—parents and grandparents, sons and daughters and fiancés—fell from about 4,400 during the 1991-1995 period to 2,100 during the 1996-2000 period.

As for refugees, both government-assisted and privately-sponsored refugees became much less numerous. Seventeen hundred government-sponsored refugees were destined to Hamilton during the 1986-1990 period, but only a small fraction of that number listed Hamilton as their destination during the next five years. Only 900 privately-sponsored refugees entered in the second half of the 1990s, less than one-third of the 3,000 that entered in the second half of the 1980s. The other refugee categories, asylum seekers and dependants abroad, increased from negligible size to account for one-half of refugees entering in the 1996-2000 period.

Skilled workers and their dependants accounted for the lion’s share of economic immigrants, and there was a steady flow of new entrants of this type destined for Hamilton throughout the 1986-2000 period.

Religions changing with countries of origin

Recent immigrants have brought to Hamilton several religions that were virtually absent before 1986. Nearly one-quarter of very recent immigrants are Muslims, followed closely by Roman Catholics. This is in contrast to those who immigrated before 1986, among whom Roman Catholics accounted for over two-fifths and Muslims for only 1%. Those adhering to Buddhist, Sikh and Hindu faiths jointly make up 9% of very recent immigrants. Among the Canadian-born, the Muslim religion claims the allegiance of only 1% of the population.

Table B-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—religious affiliation, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born Immigrants Immigrated
before 1986
Immigrated
1986-1995
Immigrated
1996-2001
Roman Catholic 164,760 62,840 45,770 13,090 3,980
Protestant 203,300 39,930 33,760 4,140 2,050
Orthodox Christian 6,310 10,710 5,130 2,940 2,610
Other Christian 12,310 5,300 2,430 1,800 1,030
Muslim 2,970 8,910 1,360 3,280 4,280
Buddhist 1,390 3,190 1,200 1,600 390
Hindu 1,090 2,810 1,130 850 830
Sikh 1,190 2,420 890 1,020 520
Other 6,310 1,870 1,350 310 220
No religion 95,230 16,720 10,450 3,450 2,810
Total 494,820 154,660 103,540 32,440 18,690
 
Roman Catholic 33% 41% 44% 40% 21%
Protestant 41% 26% 33% 13% 11%
Orthodox Christian 1% 7% 5% 9% 14%
Other Christian 2% 3% 2% 6% 5%
Muslim 1% 6% 1% 10% 23%
Buddhist 0% 2% 1% 5% 2%
Hindu 0% 2% 1% 3% 4%
Sikh 0% 2% 1% 3% 3%
Other 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%
No religion 19% 11% 10% 11% 15%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Note: Religions are listed in order of their share of the population of Canada, from highest to lowest, with Christian religions grouped together.

Age and gender

Close to one-half of recent immigrants are young adults

The age distribution of the recent immigrant population (those landing between 1986 and 2001) is markedly different from that of the Canadian-born population, with a larger proportion aged 25 to 44 and proportionally fewer seniors among recent immigrants. In 2001, nearly one-half of recent immigrants living in Hamilton were between the ages of 25 and 44, compared to three-tenths of Canadian-born individuals. Seniors accounted for just 4% of the recent immigrant population compared with 10% of the Canadian-born.

Table B-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 58,060 35,900 76,720 51,830 29,290 251,770
Immigrants 3,600 5,370 22,100 28,360 21,190 80,590
 Immigrated before 1986 0 630 9,570 23,840 19,930 53,950
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,310 3,120 8,110 3,370 960 16,870
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,290 1,620 4,420 1,150 300 9,780
Men
Canadian-born 61,220 36,390 75,760 48,700 21,010 243,060
Immigrants 3,740 5,260 20,280 26,750 18,060 74,070
 Immigrated before 1986 0 730 9,400 22,350 17,110 49,580
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,600 3,110 6,940 3,240 710 15,570
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,150 1,430 3,950 1,160 250 8,920
Total
Canadian-born 119,270 72,270 152,470 100,520 50,290 494,830
Immigrants 7,330 10,620 42,370 55,100 39,240 154,660
 Immigrated before 1986 0 1,350 18,980 46,180 37,020 103,540
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,900 6,230 15,040 6,610 1,670 32,440
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,440 3,040 8,360 2,310 550 18,690
 
Canadian-born 24% 15% 31% 20% 10% 100%
Immigrants 5% 7% 27% 36% 25% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 1% 18% 45% 36% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9% 19% 46% 20% 5% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 24% 16% 45% 12% 3% 100%
Total population 19% 13% 30% 24% 14% 100%

The relatively large proportion of children among very recent immigrants is particularly notable given how we define immigrants and the Canadian-born. The immigrant population grows older like the Canadian population but does not renew itself in the same way, as children born in Canada to immigrants are not considered immigrants. Thus, there are no persons under 15 years of age among immigrants who landed before 1986, and the older age groups are over-represented among these earlier immigrants. By the same token, the share of children among the Canadian-born is large as it includes children born in Canada to immigrant parents.

The age structure of very recent immigrants closely resembles age at landing. Immigrants tend to arrive in Canada during their prime working-age years. This was the case among immigrants who landed more than 30 years ago, and it is still the case today. It is therefore not surprising that a large share of very recent immigrants were in the 25 to 44 age group.

 

Many of the characteristics and circumstances described in this profile vary with age. Differences between immigrants or groups of immigrants and the Canadian-born often are at least in part a reflection of differences in the age structure.

Figure B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, by age, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure B-1

More women than men

The proportion of women in the recent immigrant population in Hamilton is similar to but, at 52%, slightly higher than that of the Canadian-born population. More than 58% of recent immigrants from the Philippines, Viet Nam and the United States are women.

Table B-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage of women, by age, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Canadian-born 49% 50% 50% 52% 58% 51%
Immigrants 49% 51% 52% 51% 54% 52%
 Immigrated before 1986 46% 50% 52% 54% 52%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 45% 50% 54% 51% 57% 52%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 52% 53% 53% 50% 55% 52%

There are 2,000 more women than men among the 51,100 recent immigrants in Hamilton. The number of women is particularly high among recent immigrants from the Philippines (600 more women than men out of 2,400 recent immigrants) and Viet Nam (300 more women than men out of 1,700 recent immigrants).

As women on average live longer than men, they make up a large share of persons aged 65 years and over. But the higher proportion of women among recent immigrants is not related to age. For instance, about two-thirds of recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 from the Philippines are women. Some of these have obtained permanent resident status after a period of employment as live-in caregivers.

At the opposite end of the spectrum of gender mix are Yugoslavia and South Korea. Fifty-five percent of recent immigrants from these countries are men. Men outnumber women by 300 among recent immigrants from Yugoslavia and by 90 in the case of South Korea. The gender balance, by country of origin, has not changed greatly since 1996.

Language and education

Almost nine in ten very recent immigrants speak English or French

A large majority of Hamilton’s immigrants 15 years of age and over report being able to carry on a conversation in at least one of Canada’s two official languages. Even among very recent immigrants, who landed in Canada from 1996 to 2001, nine out of ten reported being able to speak an official language in May 2001. One in ten of these very recent immigrants could not speak either official language. Knowledge of official languages is somewhat more widespread among those who immigrated in earlier periods: 94% of those arriving between 1986 and 1995 and 96% of those arriving before 1986 indicated that they were able to speak an official language.

Table B-7: Very recent immigrants (immigrated between 1996 and 2001)—15 years of age and over—knowledge of official languages, by age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  English only French only English and French Neither English nor French Total
Women
15 to 24 years 1,460 110 60 1,620
25 to 44 years 3,690 20 270 430 4,410
45 to 64 years 700 30 440 1,160
65 years and over 150 20 150 310
15 years and over 5,990 30 410 1,060 7,490
Men
15 to 24 years 1,260 10 110 50 1,430
25 to 44 years 3,490 10 210 240 3,950
45 to 64 years 940 50 180 1,160
65 years and over 100 10 150 250
15 years and over 5,780 20 370 600 6,770
Total
15 to 24 years 2,720 220 110 3,040
25 to 44 years 7,180 30 490 670 8,360
45 to 64 years 1,630 70 610 2,310
65 years and over 240 20 290 550
15 years and over 11,760 40 790 1,660 14,250
 
Women
15 to 24 years 90% 0% 7% 4% 100%
25 to 44 years 84% 0% 6% 10% 100%
45 to 64 years 60% 0% 3% 38% 100%
65 years and over 48% 0% 6% 48% 100%
15 years and over 80% 0% 5% 14% 100%
Men
15 to 24 years 88% 1% 8% 3% 100%
25 to 44 years 88% 0% 5% 6% 100%
45 to 64 years 81% 0% 4% 16% 100%
65 years and over 40% 0% 4% 60% 100%
15 years and over 85% 0% 5% 9% 100%
Total
15 to 24 years 89% 0% 7% 4% 100%
25 to 44 years 86% 0% 6% 8% 100%
45 to 64 years 71% 0% 3% 26% 100%
65 years and over 44% 0% 4% 53% 100%
15 years and over 83% 0% 6% 12% 100%

The proportion of Hamilton’s immigrants able to carry on a conversation in English or French decreases with age. Among immigrants under age 45 who landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001, almost all are able to speak an official language. Among those aged 45 to 64, however, the percentage that can speak English or French falls slightly, and more so for women than men. Seniors aged 65 and over are least likely to have conversational ability in English or French, more so for men than women.

Ability to converse in either or both official languages has remained the same for the very recent immigrant cohort in the 2001 Census compared to the comparable cohort in the 1996 Census (those who landed between 1991 and 1996).

Seven in ten very recent immigrants speak a foreign language at home

For the majority of Hamilton’s recent immigrants, the language spoken most often at home is one other than English or French. Seven in ten immigrants who landed between 1996 and 2001 most often speak a foreign language in their homes.

The use of a foreign language is also high among other immigrant cohorts. Over one-half of those who immigrated between 1986 and 1995 and close to one in four of those who immigrated prior to 1986 most often spoke a foreign language at home.

Figure B-2: Immigrants by period of immigration—15 years of age and over — use of a foreign language at home, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

Figure B-2

The use of foreign languages in the home was more common in 2001 than in 1996, for a given length of stay in Canada. Of very recent immigrants in 1996, 64% reported use of a foreign language in the home. Among those who had lived in Canada from 5 to 15 years, 53% commonly used a foreign language in 2001, compared to 46% in 1996.

Many university graduates among very recent immigrants

The share of immigrants with a minimal education is four to five times as large as the share of the Canadian-born with a minimal education. The Canadian-born are more likely than immigrants to have some high school. Very recent immigrants, however, boast a large number of university graduates. The high proportion of university graduates is most probably a result of immigrant selection policy, which places a large emphasis on education for immigrants in the economic category.

When education levels are compared by age group, the younger generation has a much higher level of education than older groups, whether born inside or outside Canada. Three in five Canadian-born persons under 45 years of age have a post-secondary diploma or degree, compared to one in three men over 65 years of age and one in four women over 65 years of age. A similar intergenerational difference in educational qualifications is observed among immigrants.

Table B-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—highest level of education, by gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Number of persons
Women
Canadian-born 8,650 49,380 50,480 56,440 28,770 193,720
Immigrants 15,250 16,230 15,620 20,170 9,730 77,000
 Immigrated before 1986 12,760 11,580 10,040 14,060 5,520 53,950
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,710 3,300 3,660 4,630 2,270 15,560
 Immigrated 1996-2001 780 1,360 1,920 1,490 1,950 7,490
Men
Canadian-born 7,710 48,990 45,350 52,550 27,250 181,840
Immigrants 10,940 13,300 11,970 22,580 11,550 70,330
 Immigrated before 1986 9,420 8,930 7,160 16,950 7,140 49,590
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,120 3,180 3,290 4,160 2,220 13,980
 Immigrated 1996-2001 410 1,190 1,520 1,470 2,190 6,770
Total
Canadian-born 16,370 98,370 95,820 108,990 56,020 375,560
Immigrants 26,190 29,530 27,590 42,750 21,280 147,330
 Immigrated before 1986 22,180 20,500 17,200 31,000 12,660 103,540
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,840 6,470 6,960 8,790 4,490 29,540
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,180 2,550 3,440 2,960 4,130 14,250
 
Women
Canadian-born 4% 25% 26% 29% 15% 100%
Immigrants 20% 21% 20% 26% 13% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 24% 21% 19% 26% 10% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 11% 21% 24% 30% 15% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 18% 26% 20% 26% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 4% 27% 25% 29% 15% 100%
Immigrants 16% 19% 17% 32% 16% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 19% 18% 14% 34% 14% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8% 23% 24% 30% 16% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 18% 22% 22% 32% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 4% 26% 26% 29% 15% 100%
Immigrants 18% 20% 19% 29% 14% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 21% 20% 17% 30% 12% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10% 22% 24% 30% 15% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 18% 24% 21% 29% 100%

 

Table B-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 years of age and over, with no high school diploma or with post-secondary diploma or degree—by age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  No high school diploma With post-secondary diploma or degree
  25 to 44 years 45 to 65 years 65 years and over 25 to 44 years 45 to 65 years 65 years and over
Women
Canadian-born 11,430 14,300 16,880 46,760 24,190 6,830
Immigrants 4,580 10,420 14,310 12,590 12,210 4,010
 Immigrated before 1986 1,900 8,890 13,410 5,450 10,080 3,820
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,900 1,040 710 4,500 1,720 130
 Immigrated 1996-2001 790 490 190 2,640 430 80
Men
Canadian-born 13,810 14,200 10,910 42,810 24,730 7,170
Immigrants 4,180 7,730 9,780 11,670 15,180 6,590
 Immigrated before 1986 2,210 6,680 9,210 5,070 12,510 6,360
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,480 830 410 3,890 1,940 190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 460 230 160 2,710 730 40
Total
Canadian-born 25,240 28,500 27,790 89,560 48,910 14,000
Immigrants 8,750 18,160 24,100 24,260 27,380 10,600
 Immigrated before 1986 4,120 15,590 22,620 10,530 22,580 10,170
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,380 1,880 1,140 8,390 3,660 330
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,250 710 340 5,360 1,160 120
 
Women
Canadian-born 15% 28% 58% 61% 47% 23%
Immigrants 21% 37% 68% 57% 43% 19%
 Immigrated before 1986 20% 37% 67% 57% 42% 19%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 23% 31% 74% 55% 51% 14%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 18% 42% 63% 60% 37% 25%
Men
Canadian-born 18% 29% 52% 57% 51% 34%
Immigrants 21% 29% 54% 58% 57% 36%
 Immigrated before 1986 23% 30% 54% 54% 56% 37%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 21% 25% 58% 56% 60% 27%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 12% 19% 62% 69% 63% 16%
Total
Canadian-born 17% 28% 55% 59% 49% 28%
Immigrants 21% 33% 61% 57% 50% 27%
 Immigrated before 1986 22% 34% 61% 55% 49% 27%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 22% 28% 68% 56% 55% 19%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15% 31% 62% 64% 50% 21%

Almost seven in ten men aged 25-44 who immigrated during the 1996-2001 period have a post-secondary diploma or degree, compared to less than six in ten Canadian-born men. The women’s shares are three-fifths, showing that the very recent immigrant cohort has closed the gap with the Canadian-born.

As for persons 45 years of age and over, the education level of very recent immigrant men is higher than that of Canadian-born men, while women in the very recent immigrant cohort have less schooling than their Canadian-born counterparts.

Recent immigrants add to Hamilton’s pool of scientists and engineers

Two-thirds of men who immigrated after 1985 and have a post-secondary diploma or degree majored in physical sciences, engineering or trades. This compares to slightly more than one-half of Canadian-born men. Among women with a post-secondary diploma or degree, more than one in five recent immigrants have studied some physical science, engineering and trades, compared to one in ten Canadian-born women with similar education levels.

Table B-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, with a post-secondary diploma or degree—major field of study, by gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Physical sciences, engineering and trades Social sciences, education and arts Commerce, management and business administration Health professions and related technologies Total
Women
Canadian-born 9,160 36,410 21,510 18,040 85,110
Immigrants 5,120 10,690 7,400 6,650 29,850
 Immigrated before 1986 1,490 2,180 1,710 1,500 6,870
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,660 7,260 5,010 4,620 19,540
 Immigrated 1996-2001 980 1,240 680 530 3,430
Men
Canadian-born 41,660 19,890 15,130 3,060 79,730
Immigrants 22,470 5,970 3,930 1,720 34,080
 Immigrated before 1986 4,340 1,000 700 350 6,380
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15,700 4,370 2,850 1,150 24,070
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,430 610 390 220 3,650
Total
Canadian-born 50,810 56,310 36,630 21,090 164,830
Immigrants 27,590 16,650 11,330 8,380 63,940
 Immigrated before 1986 5,830 3,180 2,400 1,850 13,250
 Immigrated 1986-1995 18,340 11,630 7,860 5,780 43,600
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,410 1,860 1,070 750 7,080
 
Women
Canadian-born 11% 43% 25% 21% 100%
Immigrants 17% 36% 25% 22% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 22% 32% 25% 22% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 37% 26% 24% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 29% 36% 20% 15% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 52% 25% 19% 4% 100%
Immigrants 66% 18% 12% 5% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 68% 16% 11% 5% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 65% 18% 12% 5% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 67% 17% 11% 6% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 31% 34% 22% 13% 100%
Immigrants 43% 26% 18% 13% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 44% 24% 18% 14% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 42% 27% 18% 13% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 48% 26% 15% 11% 100%

Recent immigrants are represented in smaller proportions than the Canadian-born in the social sciences, education and the arts (taken as a group) and in commerce, management and business administration (taken as a group). The share of health professionals among very recently immigrated men is higher than among their Canadian-born counterparts. The educational choices of very recent immigrants are much the same as in 1996.

Recent immigrants more likely to attend school

Very recent immigrants are relatively likely to be in school. School attendance is at least twice as high among very recent immigrants as among the Canadian-born, in both the 25-44 and 45-64 age groups.

Table B-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, attending school—by age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years
Women
Canadian-born 22,770 9,920 2,740 63% 13% 5%
Immigrants 3,600 3,610 1,210 67% 16% 4%
 Immigrated before 1986 360 1,230 860 57% 13% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,160 1,070 160 69% 13% 5%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,080 1,310 170 67% 30% 15%
Men
Canadian-born 21,710 7,750 1,310 60% 10% 3%
Immigrants 3,490 2,620 850 66% 13% 3%
 Immigrated before 1986 380 810 550 52% 9% 2%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,070 760 160 67% 11% 5%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,030 1,040 130 73% 26% 11%
Total
Canadian-born 44,470 17,670 4,040 62% 12% 4%
Immigrants 7,090 6,230 2,060 67% 15% 4%
 Immigrated before 1986 750 2,070 1,430 55% 11% 3%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,240 1,830 330 68% 12% 5%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,110 2,350 300 69% 28% 13%

School attendance, of course, is much higher in the youngest age group, persons of 15 to 24 years of age, than in older age groups. Here, also, we find a higher rate for men and women who immigrated very recently than for the Canadian-born. The high rate for immigrant women relative to the Canadian-born is particularly noteworthy, as educational participation of young Canadian-born women is very high by international standards. School attendance is also high among young earlier immigrants.

By and large, school attendance rates for all groups were similar to those in 1996.

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