Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Hamilton—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower the more recent the arrival

Very recent immigrants are not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. The difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is twenty percentage points for women and fourteen percentage points for men. Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is more like that of the Canadian-born. A general pattern of adjustment and increasing involvement of immigrants in the Canadian labour market with longer stay is evident in all three age groups, for both men and women. Immigrant women have a larger gap to bridge.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 25,800 62,820 34,420 123,030
Immigrants 3,070 16,580 17,130 36,780
 Immigrated before 1986 520 7,680 14,330 22,530
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,860 6,140 2,280 10,270
 Immigrated 1996-2001 690 2,750 540 3,970
Men
Canadian-born 25,830 69,980 38,900 134,700
Immigrants 3,040 18,170 21,360 42,570
 Immigrated before 1986 530 8,570 17,680 26,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,970 6,390 2,830 11,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 540 3,220 840 4,600
Total
Canadian-born 51,630 132,800 73,310 257,730
Immigrants 6,110 34,750 38,490 79,340
 Immigrated before 1986 1,050 16,250 32,010 49,300
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,830 12,530 5,110 21,470
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,230 5,970 1,380 8,580

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 72% 82% 66% 75% 123,030
Immigrants 57% 75% 60% 66% 36,780
 Immigrated before 1986 83% 80% 60% 66% 22,530
 Immigrated 1986-1995 59% 76% 68% 70% 10,270
 Immigrated 1996-2001 43% 62% 47% 55% 3,970
Men
Canadian-born 71% 92% 80% 84% 134,700
Immigrants 58% 90% 80% 81% 42,570
 Immigrated before 1986 73% 91% 79% 82% 26,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 63% 92% 87% 84% 11,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 38% 82% 73% 70% 4,600
Total
Canadian-born 71% 87% 73% 79% 257,730
Immigrants 57% 82% 70% 73% 79,340
 Immigrated before 1986 77% 86% 69% 74% 49,300
 Immigrated 1986-1995 62% 83% 77% 77% 21,470
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40% 71% 60% 63% 8,580

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Earlier immigrants in the 25-44 and 45-64 age groups do not quite reach the level of participation of the Canadian-born. Older workers who immigrated to Canada five to fifteen years before the 2001 Census have higher participation rates than earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born. Young persons who immigrated before 1986 are more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born of the same age.

Labour force participation by most cohorts increased between 1996 and 2001, but very recent immigrants had a lower rate in 2001 than their counterparts did in 1996.

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-1, women

Figure D-1, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants, with one exception: men who immigrated after 1985 and who at the time of the 2001 Census had only attended elementary school had a higher participation rate than those with some high school.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 840 21,640 34,730 42,470 23,360 123,030
Immigrants 2,600 5,350 8,680 13,150 7,010 36,780
 Immigrated before 1986 1,860 3,260 5,100 8,350 3,960 22,530
 Immigrated 1986-1995 540 1,540 2,560 3,820 1,800 10,270
 Immigrated 1996-2001 210 550 1,020 980 1,240 3,970
Men
Canadian-born 1,950 29,170 37,070 44,050 22,470 134,700
Immigrants 2,990 6,830 8,560 15,540 8,660 42,570
 Immigrated before 1986 2,190 4,300 4,830 10,520 4,940 26,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 650 2,070 2,750 3,760 1,970 11,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 160 470 990 1,260 1,730 4,600
Total
Canadian-born 2,780 50,800 71,800 86,520 45,840 257,730
Immigrants 5,600 12,170 17,230 28,690 15,660 79,340
 Immigrated before 1986 4,030 7,570 9,930 18,880 8,910 49,300
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,210 3,600 5,310 7,590 3,780 21,470
 Immigrated 1996-2001 370 1,020 2,000 2,230 2,990 8,580

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 27% 57% 77% 83% 85% 75%
Immigrants 38% 52% 68% 78% 78% 66%
 Immigrated before 1986 37% 55% 69% 77% 81% 66%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 44% 50% 72% 83% 82% 70%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 34% 41% 54% 66% 66% 55%
Men
Canadian-born 51% 70% 87% 92% 91% 84%
Immigrants 63% 70% 83% 88% 87% 81%
 Immigrated before 1986 61% 78% 86% 87% 87% 82%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 78% 68% 86% 92% 93% 84%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 55% 40% 67% 87% 80% 70%
Total
Canadian-born 40% 63% 82% 87% 88% 79%
Immigrants 48% 61% 75% 83% 83% 73%
 Immigrated before 1986 47% 66% 77% 82% 84% 74%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 58% 59% 79% 88% 88% 77%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40% 41% 60% 76% 74% 63%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Immigrants with little schooling, even very recent immigrants, are equally or more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born with low education. But at all other education levels there is a common pattern of relatively low participation rates for very recently landed immigrants and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born for earlier cohorts.

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-2, Women

Figure D-2, Men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Knowledge of English important for labour force participation

Most immigrants report that they have knowledge of either English or French when they immigrate to Canada. As reported at the time of the 2001 Census, the large majority of both men and women who immigrated during the 1990s and settled in Hamilton speak English. Those who do not speak English are not nearly as active in the labour market as those who do. The gap in labour force participation between those who do speak English and those who do not is larger for women than for men.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Population Labour force
  No
English
No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 123,000 123,030
Immigrants 2,400 830 35,940 36,780
 Immigrated before 1986 750 200 22,350 22,530
 Immigrated 1986-1995 720 320 9,980 10,270
 Immigrated 1996-2001 940 350 3,630 3,970
Men
Canadian-born 134,640 134,700
Immigrants 1,270 770 41,810 42,570
 Immigrated before 1986 450 250 26,520 26,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 370 260 10,930 11,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 480 240 4,350 4,600
Total
Canadian-born 257,650 257,730
Immigrants 3,680 1,610 77,730 79,340
 Immigrated before 1986 1,190 460 48,840 49,300
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,090 580 20,900 21,470
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,410 600 7,970 8,580

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by knowledge of English and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Population share Labour force participation rate
  No
English
No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 75% 75%
Immigrants 4% 35% 67% 66%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 27% 67% 66%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 45% 72% 70%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 37% 58% 55%
Men
Canadian-born 84% 84%
Immigrants 2% 60% 82% 81%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 56% 83% 82%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 70% 85% 84%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 50% 72% 70%
Total
Canadian-born 79% 79%
Immigrants 3% 44% 74% 73%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 39% 75% 74%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 53% 78% 77%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 42% 65% 63%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Unemployment not uncommon during initial years

Immigrants who are in their initial years in Canada are more likely to experience unemployment than those who have been in the country for a longer period of time. For instance, very recently immigrated men in Hamilton experienced unemployment rates from 12% to 19%, depending on their age group, and very recently immigrated women experienced rates of 13% to 20%, depending on their age group. Unemployment is significantly lower among persons who immigrated before 1996, except for the youngest age group, but it is still higher than for the Canadian-born.

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 2,870 2,430 1,000 6,300
Immigrants 510 1,490 700 2,700
 Immigrated before 1986 80 410 510 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 310 540 120 970
 Immigrated 1996-2001 130 550 70 750
Men
Canadian-born 3,190 2,980 1,350 7,520
Immigrants 430 1,260 940 2,620
 Immigrated before 1986 40 370 610 1,010
 Immigrated 1986-1995 290 500 200 990
 Immigrated 1996-2001 110 390 140 640
Total
Canadian-born 6,060 5,400 2,350 13,810
Immigrants 940 2,750 1,640 5,320
 Immigrated before 1986 110 770 1,110 1,990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 600 1,050 320 1,960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 240 930 210 1,380

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 11% 4% 3% 5% 6,300
Immigrants 17% 9% 4% 7% 2,700
 Immigrated before 1986 14% 5% 4% 4% 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 16% 9% 5% 9% 970
 Immigrated 1996-2001 19% 20% 13% 19% 750
Men
Canadian-born 12% 4% 3% 6% 7,520
Immigrants 14% 7% 4% 6% 2,620
 Immigrated before 1986 8% 4% 3% 4% 1,010
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 8% 7% 9% 990
 Immigrated 1996-2001 19% 12% 17% 14% 640
Total
Canadian-born 12% 4% 3% 5% 13,810
Immigrants 15% 8% 4% 7% 5,320
 Immigrated before 1986 10% 5% 3% 4% 1,990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 16% 8% 6% 9% 1,960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 20% 16% 15% 16% 1,380

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The unemployment rate was lower in 1996 than in 2001 for almost all groups shown in Table D-8.

Earlier cohorts have lower unemployment rates than more recent cohorts at all levels of education. For instance, men who immigrated after 1995 and who have a high school diploma have an unemployment rate of 19%. The rate drops to 10% for male immigrants who landed between 1986 and 1995.

Very recent immigrant women experienced more unemployment than very recent immigrant men, irrespective of their education level, but the gender gap among those who landed during the 1986-1995 period was less. The gap between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is also larger for women than for men, particularly for those with more education.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 90 1,790 2,040 1,530 850 6,300
Immigrants 160 420 770 870 510 2,700
 Immigrated before 1986 90 120 260 410 130 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50 180 340 280 120 970
 Immigrated 1996-2001 20 110 200 170 280 750
Men
Canadian-born 140 2,510 2,280 1,910 700 7,520
Immigrants 120 490 660 860 510 2,620
 Immigrated before 1986 70 200 200 410 120 1,010
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20 210 290 280 180 990
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10 70 190 160 200 640
Total
Canadian-born 230 4,290 4,300 3,450 1,550 13,810
Immigrants 280 910 1,420 1,710 1,030 5,320
 Immigrated before 1986 170 310 420 820 250 1,990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 80 390 600 560 310 1,960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 30 180 390 330 470 1,380

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by level of education and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 11% 8% 6% 4% 4% 5%
Immigrants 6% 8% 9% 7% 7% 7%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 4% 5% 5% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9% 12% 13% 7% 6% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 19% 19% 17% 22% 19%
Men
Canadian-born 7% 9% 6% 4% 3% 6%
Immigrants 4% 7% 8% 6% 6% 6%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 5% 4% 4% 2% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 10% 10% 7% 9% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 15% 19% 12% 12% 14%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 8% 6% 4% 3% 5%
Immigrants 5% 7% 8% 6% 7% 7%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 4% 4% 4% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 11% 11% 7% 8% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 18% 19% 15% 16% 16%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Recent immigrants who do not speak English are more likely to be unemployed than those who do speak English. The difference in unemployment rates between those who speak English and those who do not, excluding the very recently immigrated cohort, varies from two to six percentage points, depending on gender and period of immigration. However, among very recent immigrants, unemployment is lower for those without knowledge of English.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Share of labour force Unemployed Total
  No English No English English
Women
Canadian-born 6,290 6,300
Immigrants 830 90 2,630 2,700
 Immigrated before 1986 200 20 950 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 320 40 940 970
 Immigrated 1996-2001 350 30 730 750
Men
Canadian-born 7,510 7,520
Immigrants 770 80 2,550 2,620 
 Immigrated before 1986 250 0 1,010 1,010
 Immigrated 1986-1995 260 40 950 990
 Immigrated 1996-2001 240 10 610 640
Total
Canadian-born 13,810 13,810
Immigrants 1,610 140 5,180 5,320
 Immigrated before 1986 460 30 1,940 1,990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 580 60 1,890 1,960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 600 50 1,340 1,380

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates by knowledge of English and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Share of labour force Unemployment rate Total
  No English No English English
Women
Canadian-born 5% 5%
Immigrants 2% 11% 7% 7%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 10% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 11% 9% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 7% 20% 19%
Men
Canadian-born 6% 6%
Immigrants 2% 10% 6% 6%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 0% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2% 13% 9% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 4% 14% 14%
Total
Canadian-born 5% 5%
Immigrants 2% 9% 7% 7%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 7% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 10% 9% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 8% 17% 16%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Share of men and women with jobs increases with length of stay

Less than one-half of very recently immigrated women aged 15 to 64 are employed, compared to seven in ten Canadian-born women. For men the difference is somewhat smaller: six in ten very recent immigrants are employed compared to eight in ten Canadian-born men. As shown in the previous pages, these differences in employment rates reflect mainly differences in labour force participation rates.

Among immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is more common than among the more recently landed, but not quite as common as among the Canadian-born. For men and women aged 25 to 44 and 45 to 64 years, the employment rate of immigrants who landed before 1986 is one to six percentage points lower than the employment rate of the Canadian-born. In the 45 to 64 age group, a larger share of men and women who landed during the 1986-1995 period is employed than of those who landed earlier.

In 2001, the incidence of employment was generally higher among cohorts than in 1996. The cohort of men and women who landed between five and fifteen years before the census saw the largest gain.

Table D-13: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 22,930 60,400 33,420 116,750
Immigrants 2,560 15,090 16,440 34,080
 Immigrated before 1986 450 7,280 13,810 21,540
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,550 5,600 2,160 9,310
 Immigrated 1996-2001 560 2,210 470 3,230
Men
Canadian-born 22,640 67,000 37,550 127,190
Immigrants 2,610 16,910 20,430 39,950
 Immigrated before 1986 490 8,200 17,090 25,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,690 5,890 2,630 10,210
 Immigrated 1996-2001 440 2,830 700 3,970
Total
Canadian-born 45,570 127,400 70,970 243,930
Immigrants 5,170 32,000 36,860 74,020
 Immigrated before 1986 940 15,480 30,900 47,310
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,240 11,490 4,790 19,520
 Immigrated 1996-2001 990 5,040 1,170 7,190

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-14: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 15 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 64% 79% 64% 71% 116,750
Immigrants 48% 68% 58% 61% 34,080
 Immigrated before 1986 72% 76% 58% 63% 21,540
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50% 69% 64% 64% 9,310
 Immigrated 1996-2001 34% 50% 40% 45% 3,230
Men
Canadian-born 62% 88% 77% 79% 127,190
Immigrants 50% 83% 76% 76% 39,950
 Immigrated before 1986 68% 87% 76% 79% 25,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 54% 85% 81% 77% 10,210
 Immigrated 1996-2001 31% 72% 61% 61% 3,970
Total
Canadian-born 63% 84% 71% 75% 243,930
Immigrants 49% 76% 67% 68% 74,020
 Immigrated before 1986 70% 82% 67% 71% 47,310
 Immigrated 1986-1995 52% 76% 73% 70% 19,520
 Immigrated 1996-2001 33% 60% 51% 52% 7,190

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs generally more common for very recent immigrants

The proportion of employed persons who work part-time varies considerably by age and gender, both for immigrants and the Canadian-born. About one-half or more of employed young adults work part-time. Of employed women 25 to 64 years of age, 20% to 31% work part-time, while for men the share is 4% to 13%.

Table D-15: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 17,270 15,920 9,660 42,840
Immigrants 1,760 4,080 4,290 10,130
 Immigrated before 1986 250 1,910 3,700 5,860
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,150 1,530 470 3,150
 Immigrated 1996-1999 360 650 120 1,120
Men
Canadian-born 14,560 3,170 2,490 20,210
Immigrants 1,480 1,000 1,190 3,670
 Immigrated before 1986 230 380 940 1,550
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,030 360 170 1,560
 Immigrated 1996-1999 220 270 90 570
Total
Canadian-born 31,830 19,080 12,140 63,050
Immigrants 3,220 5,060 5,490 13,770
 Immigrated before 1986 480 2,270 4,640 7,390
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,180 1,880 640 4,690
 Immigrated 1996-1999 570 910 210 1,690

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Table D-16: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed working mostly part-time, by age and gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 64% 24% 27% 33%
Immigrants 60% 25% 24% 27%
 Immigrated before 1986 50% 24% 25% 25%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 62% 25% 20% 30%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 63% 31% 26% 36%
Men
Canadian-born 53% 4% 6% 15%
Immigrants 49% 6% 5% 9%
 Immigrated before 1986 41% 4% 5% 6%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 53% 6% 6% 14%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 46% 11% 13% 16%
Total
Canadian-born 59% 14% 16% 24%
Immigrants 55% 15% 14% 17%
 Immigrated before 1986 44% 14% 14% 14%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 57% 15% 12% 22%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 56% 20% 19% 25%

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Part-time employment generally is more common among very recent immigrants than the Canadian-born 25 years of age and over.

The prevalence of part-time employment was generally lower for the various cohorts in 2001 than in 1996, except for very recent immigrants under 45 years of age.

More recent immigrants in sales and services and processing occupations

Employed immigrants are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in sales and service occupations and processing occupations. One-half of employed recent immigrant women and one third of employed recent immigrant men are employed in sales and service occupations and processing occupations, compared to one-quarter of Canadian-born men and women employed in these occupations. By contrast, administrative occupations and management and social occupations, which are favoured by the Canadian-born, account for smaller shares of the jobs of earlier and recent immigrants.

The distribution of occupations of very recent immigrants is quite similar to that of earlier cohorts, with one major exception: a higher share of very recent immigrant men’s occupations are in the health and science fields and the sales and services fields, with a lower share in trades and transport fields.

Table D-17: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Processing Admin-
istrative
Management and social sciences Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 21,130 3,240 28,630 24,820 2,280 13,730 93,820
Immigrants 8,260 4,200 7,120 6,230 890 4,820 31,520
 Immigrated
 before 1986
5,460 1,980 5,400 4,690 590 3,010 21,090
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
2,080 1,620 1,320 1,130 220 1,420 7,750
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
720 630 400 440 90 410 2,670
Men
Canadian-born 14,980 13,020 10,340 25,210 29,440 11,590 104,550
Immigrants 5,170 5,790 2,370 7,690 11,500 4,830 37,340
 Immigrated
 before 1986
3,440 3,500 1,730 5,600 7,950 3,090 25,290
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
1,130 1,590 460 1,480 2,720 1,150 8,530
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
610 710 190 600 830 600 3,530
Total
Canadian-born 36,100 16,250 38,970 50,030 31,700 25,320 198,370
Immigrants 13,420 9,990 9,490 13,920 12,390 9,660 68,860
 Immigrated
 before 1986
8,900 5,460 7,130 10,290 8,530 6,090 46,370
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
3,210 3,210 1,770 2,590 2,940 2,560 16,270
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
1,330 1,330 590 1,030 920 1,000 6,200
 
Women
Canadian-born 23% 3% 31% 26% 2% 15% 100%
Immigrants 26% 13% 23% 20% 3% 15% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
26% 9% 26% 22% 3% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
27% 21% 17% 15% 3% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
27% 23% 15% 17% 3% 15% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 14% 12% 10% 24% 28% 11% 100%
Immigrants 14% 15% 6% 21% 31% 13% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
14% 14% 7% 22% 31% 12% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
13% 19% 5% 17% 32% 13% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
17% 20% 5% 17% 24% 17% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 18% 8% 20% 25% 16% 13% 100%
Immigrants 19% 15% 14% 20% 18% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
19% 12% 15% 22% 18% 13% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
20% 20% 11% 16% 18% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
21% 21% 10% 17% 15% 16% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

 

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-3, Women

Figure D-3, Men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Many very recent immigrants in manufacturing, fewer in the public sector

In Hamilton, relative to the Canadian-born, a large proportion of employed recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 work in manufacturing industries and in hospitality and other services industries. By contrast, construction and transportation industries and the public sector account for a smaller share of jobs of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born.

Compared to 1996, very recent immigrants have found more jobs in business services industries and fewer in hospitality and other services industries.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-4, Women

Figure D-4, Men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Table D-18: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Construction and
Transportation
Trade Business services Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 9,260 5,940 15,390 15,580 36,580 11,100 93,800
Immigrants 5,990 1,270 4,690 4,510 10,620 4,450 31,500
 Immigrated
 before 1986
3,310 930 3,150 3,090 7,830 2,780 21,100
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
1,930 280 1,210 990 2,120 1,250 7,800
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
760 60 350 420 660 430 2,700
Men
Canadian-born 32,030 20,940 18,280 13,070 13,160 7,080 104,500
Immigrants 13,420 6,930 5,690 4,020 4,250 3,060 37,300
 Immigrated
 before 1986
8,860 4,870 3,720 2,710 3,250 1,930 25,300
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
3,230 1,580 1,430 870 660 790 8,500
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
1,350 510 550 440 350 350 3,500
Total
Canadian-born 41,270 26,870 33,670 28,650 49,730 18,190 198,400
Immigrants 19,410 8,190 10,380 8,530 14,850 7,500 68,800
 Immigrated
 before 1986
12,140 5,790 6,840 5,810 11,100 4,710 46,400
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
5,160 1,850 2,640 1,870 2,780 2,010 16,300
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
2,110 570 900 860 990 780 6,200
 
Women
Canadian-born 10% 6% 16% 17% 39% 12% 100%
Immigrants 19% 4% 15% 14% 34% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
16% 4% 15% 15% 37% 13% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
25% 4% 16% 13% 27% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
28% 2% 13% 16% 25% 16% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 31% 20% 17% 13% 13% 7% 100%
Immigrants 36% 19% 15% 11% 11% 8% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
35% 19% 15% 11% 13% 8% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
38% 19% 17% 10% 8% 9% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
38% 14% 15% 12% 10% 10% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 21% 14% 17% 14% 25% 9% 100%
Immigrants 28% 12% 15% 12% 22% 11% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
26% 12% 15% 13% 24% 10% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
32% 11% 16% 11% 17% 12% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
34% 9% 15% 14% 16% 13% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Skill requirements of jobs of recent immigrants only slightly lower for men

The jobs of recent immigrants require lower skills than the jobs of the Canadian-born. One-third of jobs of Canadian-born women require the highest level of skill, a university education. For women who landed after 1995, only one in five jobs requires a university education. There is a larger gap for women than for men between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born in the skill requirements of their jobs.

Table D-19: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 7,620 30,240 25,190 30,770 93,820
Immigrants 4,770 10,840 7,810 8,110 31,520
 Immigrated before 1986 2,690 6,810 5,690 5,880 21,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,490 3,010 1,590 1,680 7,750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 570 1,030 520 560 2,680
Men
Canadian-born 8,600 28,510 35,040 32,410 104,550
Immigrants 3,850 9,990 12,770 10,740 37,340
 Immigrated before 1986 2,300 6,130 9,260 7,600 25,280
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,060 2,740 2,580 2,170 8,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 500 1,150 920 970 3,530
Total
Canadian-born 16,220 58,750 60,230 63,180 198,370
Immigrants 8,610 20,830 20,570 18,840 68,860
 Immigrated before 1986 5,010 12,920 14,980 13,480 46,370
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,550 5,730 4,160 3,840 16,280
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,070 2,170 1,440 1,530 6,200
 
Women
Canadian-born 8% 32% 27% 33% 100%
Immigrants 15% 34% 25% 26% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 13% 32% 27% 28% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19% 39% 20% 22% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 21% 38% 19% 21% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 8% 27% 34% 31% 100%
Immigrants 10% 27% 34% 29% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 24% 37% 30% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 32% 30% 25% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 14% 32% 26% 27% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 30% 30% 32% 100%
Immigrants 13% 30% 30% 27% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 28% 32% 29% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 16% 35% 26% 24% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 17% 35% 23% 25% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

For both men and women, the skill requirements of jobs of immigrants who landed before 1986 are closer to that of the Canadian-born. However, the middle group of immigrants, those who landed between 1986 and 1995, has more or less the same distribution of jobs by skill requirement as very recent immigrants.

The information presented in Table D-19 does not directly indicate whether the skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels of jobs of employed recent immigrants with the level of education of employed recent immigrants. This is done in Table D-20 for persons holding a university degree.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-5, Women

Figure D-5, Men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Education of recent immigrants not fully utilized

The jobs of recent immigrants with a university degree do not require the same level of skill as the jobs of Canadian-born persons with a university degree. Seven in ten employed Canadian-born women with a university degree have a job requiring a university degree. But only four in ten employed women who immigrated after 1995 and hold a university degree have a job that requires a university degree. Three-quarters of Canadian-born men with a university degree but only one-half of very recently immigrated men with a university degree have a job requiring a university education.

Table D-20: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs by gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 210 2,540 3,320 14,610 20,680
Immigrants 230 1,170 1,090 3,780 6,260
 Immigrated before 1986 60 510 560 2,610 3,750
 Immigrated 1986-1995 90 400 320 770 1,580
 Immigrated 1996-2001 80 250 210 390 930
Men
Canadian-born 280 1,960 3,330 15,280 20,850
Immigrants 250 1,000 1,470 5,330 8,050
 Immigrated before 1986 50 490 820 3,430 4,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 90 230 300 1,150 1,770
 Immigrated 1996-2001 110 300 360 750 1,520
Total
Canadian-born 490 4,500 6,650 29,900 41,520
Immigrants 480 2,170 2,560 9,100 14,310
 Immigrated before 1986 120 990 1,390 6,040 8,520
 Immigrated 1986-1995 180 630 620 1,920 3,350
 Immigrated 1996-2001 190 550 570 1,140 2,440
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 12% 16% 71% 100%
Immigrants 4% 19% 17% 60% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 13% 15% 69% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 25% 20% 48% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 27% 23% 42% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 1% 9% 16% 73% 100%
Immigrants 3% 12% 18% 66% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 10% 17% 72% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 13% 17% 65% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 20% 23% 49% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 1% 11% 16% 72% 100%
Immigrants 3% 15% 18% 64% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 12% 16% 71% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 19% 18% 57% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 23% 23% 47% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born —25 to 64 years of age— percentage of employed university graduates with job requiring university education, by gender, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The skill level of jobs of university graduates were higher in 2001 than in 1996, mainly in the form of a shift from jobs requiring a high school diploma plus job training or less education to jobs requiring a post-secondary education. Very recent immigrants experienced the greatest shift.

Date Modified: