Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Hamilton—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part F: Housing

Crowded accommodations more common for recent immigrants

In Hamilton, 18% of recent immigrant households live in crowded conditions (that is, there are more persons than rooms in the home). The incidence of crowding is even higher among households consisting only of very recent immigrants. By contrast, crowding is very rare among households of the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants.

Table F-1: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—persons per room, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
Households Fewer than 0.5 persons 0.5 to 0.74 persons 0.75 to 0.99 persons 1 or more persons Total
Canadian-born 109,420 42,490 5,720 3,050 160,680
Earlier immigrants 48,060 17,090 2,080 1,360 68,570
Recent immigrants 6,670 8,050 3,330 4,090 22,140
 1986-1995 immigrants 4,980 5,600 1,790 1,950 14,320
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 860 1,240 670 750 3,510
 1996-2001 immigrants only 830 1,220 870 1,390 4,310
All households 164,790 68,140 11,300 8,870 253,080
 
Canadian-born 68% 26% 4% 2% 100%
Earlier immigrants 70% 25% 3% 2% 100%
Recent immigrants 30% 36% 15% 18% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 35% 39% 12% 14% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 24% 35% 19% 21% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 19% 28% 20% 32% 100%
All households 65% 27% 4% 4% 100%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household, crowding and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Large households likely to have crowded accommodations

Crowding is related to size of household. The larger the household, the greater the chance that there are more persons than rooms in the dwelling. This pattern is found among households of the Canadian-born as well as immigrants, despite the fact that there is much less crowding in households of the Canadian-born than in households of recent immigrants.

Table F-2: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—persons per room, by size of household, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
Size of household Fewer than 0.5 persons 0.5 to 0.74 persons 0.75 to 0.99 persons 1 or more persons Total
1 to 3 persons
Canadian-born 99,100 19,200 1,500 1,300 121,140
Earlier immigrants 43,300 7,300 400 400 51,370
Recent immigrants 5,800 3,800 1,000 1,100 11,790
 1986-1995 immigrants 4,300 2,400 400 400 7,540
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 700 700 300 200 1,830
 1996-2001 immigrants only 800 800 400 500 2,420
4 to 5 persons
Canadian-born 10,100 21,800 3,000 1,100 36,030
Earlier immigrants 4,700 9,000 1,000 500 15,230
Recent immigrants 900 3,900 1,600 2,000 8,400
 1986-1995 immigrants 600 3,000 1,000 1,000 5,660
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 100 500 200 300 1,150
 1996-2001 immigrants only 100 400 400 700 1,590
6 or more persons
Canadian-born 200 1,500 1,200 700 3,520
Earlier immigrants 100 800 600 400 1,980
Recent immigrants 0 300 700 1,000 1,950
 1986-1995 immigrants 0 200 400 500 1,120
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 0 100 200 300 540
 1996-2001 immigrants only 0 0 100 200 300
 
1 to 3 persons
Canadian-born 82% 16% 1% 1% 100%
Earlier immigrants 84% 14% 1% 1% 100%
Recent immigrants 49% 32% 9% 9% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 57% 32% 5% 6% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 40% 37% 14% 10% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 31% 32% 17% 21% 100%
4 to 5 persons
Canadian-born 28% 61% 8% 3% 100%
Earlier immigrants 31% 59% 7% 4% 100%
Recent immigrants 10% 47% 20% 24% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 11% 53% 18% 18% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 11% 43% 19% 27% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 5% 27% 26% 42% 100%
6 or more persons
Canadian-born 6% 42% 33% 19% 100%
Earlier immigrants 5% 41% 33% 21% 100%
Recent immigrants 1% 16% 33% 51% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 2% 20% 34% 45% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 0% 11% 38% 51% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 0% 7% 19% 75% 100%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household, crowding and related concepts, see the Glossary.

As shown earlier, households of immigrants who landed before 1986 are similar to the households of the Canadian-born in size. They also have accommodations that are similar in size to that of the Canadian-born.

Three in ten recent immigrant households face high housing costs

Three in ten recent immigrant households spend more than 30% of their income on accommodations, and for many of these households the cost of accommodations exceeds one-half of their income. Households consisting only of very recent immigrants are even more likely to have a relatively high housing cost, with four in ten spending 30% or more of their income on housing. Of Canadian-born households, only one in four have housing cost in excess of 30% of income.

Table F-3: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—cost of accommodations as a share of household income, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Cost of accommodation
Households Less than 30% 30% to 50% 50% or more
Canadian-born 120,110 75% 23,400 15% 16,520 10%
Earlier immigrants 54,590 80% 8,700 13% 4,990 7%
Recent immigrants 13,940 70% 3,380 17% 2,600 13%
 1986-1995 immigrants 10,220 71% 2,360 16% 1,710 12%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others 1,850 77% 350 15% 190 8%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 1,870 58% 670 20% 700 22%
All households 190,030 75% 36,190 14% 25,390 10%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary. Totals do not add to 100% due to some non-reporting households.

Housing costs of more than 30% of income are considered burdensome, and households facing that level of cost generally have low incomes. Many households of recently landed immigrants have low incomes and try to keep the cost of accommodations down by choosing small quarters and making their households large. But often this is not enough to bring housing costs down to less than 30% of income.

Housing of very recent immigrants in somewhat better state of repair

The dwellings of households of immigrants who landed after 1985 have been more recently built than the houses of Canadian-born.

The state of repair of the dwellings of both recent immigrants and earlier immigrants is nearly identical to that of Canadian-born. This suggests that, although crowding and the cost of housing clearly are challenges for many recent immigrants, they tend not to resort to sub-standard accommodations.

Table F-4: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—period of construction of household dwelling, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Period of construction
Households Before 1971 1971-1990 1991-2001
Canadian-born 94,990 59% 45,480 28% 20,210 13%
Earlier immigrants 34,480 50% 25,440 37% 8,660 13%
Recent immigrants 10,190 46% 8,490 38% 3,460 16%
1986-1995 immigrants 6,410 45% 5,330 37% 2,570 18%
1996-2001 immigrants with others 1,620 46% 1,420 40% 470 13%
1996-2001 immigrants only 2,160 50% 1,730 40% 420 10%
All households 140,610 56% 80,010 32% 32,470 13%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Table F-5: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—quality of housing, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Quality of housing
Households Regular maintenance Minor repairs Major repairs
Canadian-born 106,770 66% 41,730 26% 12,190 8%
Earlier immigrants 49,040 72% 15,790 23% 3,750 5%
Recent immigrants 15,290 69% 5,320 24% 1,530 7%
 1986-1995 immigrants 9,760 68% 3,550 25% 1,020 7%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 2,340 67% 890 25% 290 8%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 3,210 74% 880 20% 230 5%
All households 172,360 68% 63,190 25% 17,550 7%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Home ownership rare among households of only very recent immigrants

Only 18% of households consisting solely of very recent immigrants own their home, compared to two-thirds of Canadian-born households and more than one-half of other recent immigrant households.

Figure F-1: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—home ownership, by household type, Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

Figure F-1

Note: For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Home-ownership is much higher among earlier immigrants than the Canadian-born. This probably reflects the higher average age of earlier immigrants, but it may also point to different choices.

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