Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Ottawa—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part B: Who Are the Recent Immigrants?

Origin, immigration category and religion

One in five very recent immigrants was born in China

Ottawa’s immigrants come from all over the world and represent a diversity of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Over the past several decades there has been a considerable change in the source countries of immigrants. In 2001, for example, there were 34,400 residents of Ottawa who landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001. The most common country of birth for these immigrants was China, accounting for 20%. The next most numerous group was persons born in India. Their number was less than one quarter of that of the Chinese. The ten most common countries of birth, accounting for 48% of these very recent immigrants and representing four different continents, were China, India, Somalia, Iran, the United States, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, Yugoslavia, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Table B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration—top ten countries of birth, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
All immigrants
Rank Country Number Share
1 United Kingdom 20,250 12%
2 China, People’s Republic of 12,870 8%
3 Lebanon 9,450 6%
4 United States 7,280 4%
5 India 6,840 4%
6 Italy 6,700 4%
7 Viet Nam 5,520 3%
8 Germany 4,950 3%
9 Poland 4,880 3%
10 Somalia 4,580 3%
Top ten countries 83,320 50%
All other countries 84,800 50%
Total 168,120 100%
Immigrated before 1986
1 United Kingdom 17,670 21%
2 Italy 6,440 8%
3 United States 4,850 6%
4 Germany 4,200 5%
5 Lebanon 3,760 5%
6 India 3,290 4%
7 Viet Nam 3,030 4%
8 China, People’s Republic of 2,630 3%
9 Poland 2,350 3%
10 Netherlands 2,340 3%
Top ten countries 50,560 62%
All other countries 31,630 38%
Total 82,190 100%
Immigrated 1986-1995
1 Lebanon 4,900 10%
2 China, People’s Republic of 3,520 7%
3 Somalia 3,240 6%
4 Poland 2,330 5%
5 Viet Nam 2,240 4%
6 Philippines 2,070 4%
7 India 2,010 4%
8 United Kingdom 1,610 3%
9 Hong Kong 1,530 3%
10 Iran 1,500 3%
Top ten countries 24,950 49%
All other countries 26,590 51%
Total 51,540 100%
Immigrated 1996-2001
1 China, People’s Republic of 6,750 20%
2 India 1,540 4%
3 Somalia 1,260 4%
4 Iran 1,210 4%
5 United States 1,060 3%
6 Russian Federation 1,000 3%
7 United Kingdom 970 3%
8 Yugoslavia, Former 880 3%
9 Pakistan 870 3%
10 Bangladesh 830 2%
Top ten countries 16,370 48%
All other countries 18,030 52%
Total 34,400 100%

Among Ottawa’s earlier immigrants—those arriving in Canada before 1986—the United Kingdom and Italy were the most common countries of birth, accounting for 29% of this group.

In general, the birth origins of Ottawa’s immigrant population vary in relation to the period of immigration. European birth origins are predominant among those who immigrated in the 1950s, the 1960s and, to a lesser extent, the 1970s, and Asian birth origins are predominant among those who immigrated in the 1980s and 1990s. Five of the top ten countries of birth of very recent immigrants are in Asia, and for immigrants who landed from 1986 to 1995, seven of the top ten countries of birth are in Asia.

A favoured destination for some recent immigrants

Table B-2: Recent immigrants in Canada by country of birth and percentage residing in Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
Country of Birth Total recent immigrants to Canada Share residing in Ottawa
Somalia 18,220 24.7%
Lebanon 43,930 12.9%
Ethiopia 12,080 12.9%
Haiti 25,430 7.7%
Bangladesh 19,920 7.1%
Egypt 16,970 6.2%
Bosnia and Herzegovina 23,170 5.7%
Iraq 22,300 5.7%
Afghanistan 20,670 4.4%
Iran 61,560 4.4%
China, People’s Republic of 236,930 4.3%
Yugoslavia, Former 35,860 4.1%
Russian Federation 35,950 4.0%
El Salvador 29,680 3.9%
Croatia 11,380 3.8%
Syria 10,340 3.7%
United Kingdom 69,660 3.7%
Ukraine 25,530 3.5%
Viet Nam 72,330 3.4%
All recent immigrants 2,491,850 3.4%
United States 73,860 3.3%
Germany 22,810 3.3%
Romania 43,200 3.2%
Peru 12,590 3.2%
Ghana 13,450 3.2%
All immigrants 5,448,490 3.1%
Poland 91,140 2.8%
Morocco 13,510 2.7%
Total population 29,639,000 2.7%
Malaysia 12,280 2.6%
All Canadian-born 23,991,910 2.6%
Colombia 10,190 2.6%
Jamaica 48,760 2.3%
France 27,500 2.3%
Guatemala 10,580 2.2%
Sri Lanka 80,080 2.2%
Pakistan 64,020 2.1%
Mexico 24,640 1.8%
India 197,680 1.8%
Philippines 161,130 1.8%
South Africa, Republic of 19,890 1.5%
Portugal 34,120 1.4%
Trinidad and Tobago 28,790 1.3%
Korea, South 50,970 1.2%
Guyana 38,910 1.1%
Hong Kong 168,770 1.0%

Note: Table B-2 lists all countries that are the place of birth of at least 10,000 recent immigrants living in Canada in 2001, with Ottawa’s share being 1% or more.

Ottawa is home to 3.1% of all immigrants in the country. For some immigrant groups, Ottawa is a preferred destination. For example, of the 18,200 Somalia-born individuals who immigrated after 1985 and were living in Canada in 2001, 4,500 or one-quarter were living in Ottawa. Ottawa is also home to a large share of recent immigrants from Lebanon, Ethiopia and Haiti. Of the 74,000 recent immigrants to Canada born in the United States, a relatively small proportion (3.3%) was residing in Ottawa in 2001. This share, however, exceeds Ottawa’s share of the total national Canadian-born population (2.6%).

High share of economic immigrants among very recent landings

Statistics published by Citizenship and Immigration Canada show that the number of immigrants who reported Ottawa as their destination when they landed in Canada increased by 12,100 between the second half of the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s and decreased by 4,600 in the second half of the 1990s. The decline was concentrated in the family and refugee classes, while the number of economic immigrants increased. One-half of very recent immigrants destined for Ottawa entered through the economic category.

Table B-3: Recent immigrants by period of immigration—landings by immigration category, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 1986-2000 (number and percentage distribution)
  1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000
Family class 8,200 34% 14,500 40% 8,400 27%
Economic immigrants 9,900 42% 11,900 33% 16,000 51%
Refugees 5,500 23% 9,300 26% 6,700 21%
Other immigrants 200 1% 200 1% 100 0%
Total 23,800 100% 35,900 100% 31,300 100%

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures, 2002 (data set).

Note: The 2001 Census did not ask immigrants about the immigration categories through which they were admitted to Canada. The information in Table B-3 was obtained from records at Citizenship and Immigration Canada, and pertains to the time of landing. The immigration categories are described in the Glossary.

Within the family class, the number of sponsored spouses showed little change over the three five-year periods and in the latest 1996-2000 period amounted to more than one-half of this category. The number of other relatives—parents and grandparents, sons and daughters, and fiancés—fell sharply from about 8,400 during the 1991-1995 period to 3,600 during the 1996-2000 period.

As for refugees, both government-assisted and privately-sponsored refugees declined in number. Six thousand government-sponsored refugees were destined to Ottawa when they landed during the 1986-1995 period, and 2,100 during the next five years. Only 400 privately-sponsored refugees entered in the second half of the 1990s, only one-fifth of the number that entered in the second half of the 1980s.

Skilled workers and their dependants account for the lion’s share of economic immigrants, and the flow of these new entrants destined for Ottawa increased steadily throughout the 15-year period 1986-2000.

More than one-quarter of very recent immigrants are Muslims

While Roman Catholics, Protestants and other Christians combined are the largest religious group among very recent immigrants, the shares adhering to the Muslim faith and those reporting no religious affiliation are nearly as high. Buddhists, Hindus and Sikhs make up a small share of very recent immigrants. Among the Canadian-born, these three religions have virtually no following.

Table B-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—religious affiliation, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born Immigrants Immigrated before 1986 Immigrated 1986-1995 Immigrated 1996-2001
Roman Catholic 302,280 48,930 28,870 14,600 5,470
Protestant 184,630 30,640 22,580 5,380 2,710
Orthodox Christian 5,990 9,640 3,440 3,370 2,810
Other Christian 9,980 5,230 1,700 2,250 1,310
Muslim 10,580 26,740 3,780 12,730 10,260
Buddhist 2,520 6,410 3,220 2,370 830
Hindu 1,870 5,850 2,140 2,260 1,450
Sikh 840 1,610 890 540 190
Other 13,250 3,790 2,540 770 510
No religion 87,200 29,300 13,170 7,280 8,860
Total 619,090 168,130 82,200 51,540 34,400
 
Roman Catholic 49% 29% 35% 28% 16%
Protestant 30% 18% 27% 10% 8%
Orthodox Christian 1% 6% 4% 7% 8%
Other Christian 2% 3% 2% 4% 4%
Muslim 2% 16% 5% 25% 30%
Buddhist 0% 4% 4% 5% 2%
Hindu 0% 3% 3% 4% 4%
Sikh 0% 1% 1% 1% 1%
Other 2% 2% 3% 1% 1%
No religion 14% 17% 16% 14% 26%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Note: Religions are listed in order of their share of the population of Canada, from highest to lowest, with Christian religions grouped together.

Roman Catholics account for one-half of the Canadian-born population and are the largest religious group among immigrants, but this is not the case among very recent immigrants. Three in ten Canadian-born persons are Protestant, with the United Church having the largest following among the major Protestant churches, accounting for 9% of the population group. Only 1% of recent immigrants report an affiliation with the United Church.

Age and gender

One-half of very recent immigrants are working-age adults 25 to 44 years old

The age distribution of the very recent immigrant population (those landing between 1996 and 2001) is markedly different from that of the Canadian-born population, with a larger proportion of persons aged 25 to 44 and proportionally fewer adults aged 45 and over. In 2001, slightly more than one-half of the very recent immigrant population living in Ottawa were between the ages of 25 and 44, compared to 30% of the Canadian-born. Adults aged 45 to 64 accounted for just 10% of the very recent immigrant population compared with 22% for the Canadian-born, while immigrants aged 65 and over accounted for only 3% of very recent immigrants in comparison to 9% for their Canadian-born counterparts. Children under 15 accounted for slightly more than one-fifth of Ottawa’s very recent immigrants as well as of the Canadian-born population.

Table B-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 68,260 44,200 98,290 70,870 33,780 315,380
Immigrants 6,080 7,860 32,260 26,450 13,980 86,640
 Immigrated before 1986 0 1,150 9,940 19,740 11,590 42,430
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,490 4,400 12,980 5,060 1,760 26,690
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,590 2,310 9,340 1,650 650 17,540
Men
Canadian-born 71,690 44,250 96,430 67,130 24,230 303,710
Immigrants 6,410 8,310 29,930 25,200 11,660 81,490
 Immigrated before 1986 0 1,140 9,540 19,180 9,930 39,770
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,290 5,020 11,930 4,370 1,260 24,850
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,120 2,150 8,470 1,650 490 16,860
Total
Canadian-born 139,940 88,440 194,720 138,000 58,010 619,090
Immigrants 12,490 16,160 62,190 51,650 25,640 168,120
 Immigrated before 1986 0 2,300 19,470 38,930 21,500 82,190
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,780 9,420 24,910 9,430 3,010 51,540
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7,720 4,460 17,800 3,300 1,130 34,400
 
Canadian-born 23% 14% 31% 22% 9% 100%
Immigrants 7% 10% 37% 31% 15% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 3% 24% 47% 26% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9% 18% 48% 18% 6% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 22% 13% 52% 10% 3% 100%
Total population 19% 13% 33% 24% 11% 100%

These differences in age structure are to some degree a result of how we define immigrants and the Canadian-born. The immigrant population grows older like the Canadian population but does not renew itself in the same way, as children born in Canada to immigrants are not considered immigrants. Thus, there are no persons under 15 years of age among immigrants who landed before 1986, and the older age groups are over-represented among these earlier immigrants. By the same token, the share of children among the Canadian-born is large as it includes children born in Canada to immigrant parents.

The age structure of very recent immigrants closely resembles age at arrival. Immigrants tend to arrive in Canada during their prime working-age years. This was the case among immigrants who landed more than 30 years ago, and it is still the case today. It is therefore not surprising that a large share of very recent immigrants were in the 25 to 44 age group.

Many of the characteristics and circumstances described in this profile vary with age. Differences between immigrants or groups of immigrants and the Canadian-born often are at least in part a reflection of differences in the age structure.

Figure B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, by age, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure B-1

More women than men

The proportion of women in the recent immigrant population in Ottawa is the same as that of the Canadian-born population. However, the proportion varies considerably by country of birth of recent immigrants. More than 62% of recent immigrants from Japan, Slovakia and the Philippines are women.

Table B-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage of women, by age, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Under 15
years
15 to 24
years
25 to 44
ears
45 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total
Canadian-born 49% 50% 50% 51% 58% 51%
Immigrants 49% 49% 52% 51% 55% 52%
 Immigrated before 1986 n.a. 50% 51% 51% 54% 52%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 52% 47% 52% 54% 58% 52%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 47% 52% 52% 50% 57% 51%

There are 2,500 more women than men among the 85,900 recent immigrants in Ottawa. The number of women is particularly high among recent immigrants from the Philippines (670 more women than men out of 2,850 recent immigrants) and Japan (130 more women than men out of 280 recent immigrants).

As women on average live longer than men, they make up a large share of persons aged 65 years and over. But the higher proportion of women among recent immigrants is not related to age. For instance, more than two-thirds of recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 from the Philippines are women. Some of them have obtained permanent resident status after a period of employment as live-in caregivers.

At the opposite end of the spectrum of the gender mix are Iran, El Salvador and Egypt. Fifty-five percent or more of recent immigrants from these countries are men. Men outnumber women by 200 among the 1,050 recent immigrants from Egypt, and by 260 among the 2,710 recent immigrants from Iran.

The gender balance, by country of origin, has not changed greatly since 1996.

Language and education

More than nine in ten very recent immigrants speak English or French

A large majority of Ottawa’s immigrants 15 years of age and over reported being able to carry on a conversation in at least one of Canada’s two official languages. Even among very recent immigrants, who landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001, more than nine in ten (95% of men and 91% of women) reported being able to speak an official language in May 2001. Less than one in ten of these very recent immigrants could not speak either official language. Knowledge of official languages was somewhat greater among those who immigrated in earlier periods—94% of those who landed between 1986 and 1995 and 97% of those who immigrated before 1986 indicated that they were able to speak an official language.

Table B-7: Very recent immigrants (immigrated between 1996 and 2001)—15 years of age and over — knowledge of official languages, by age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  English only French only English and French Neither English nor French Total
Women
15 to 24 years 1,600 80 540 100 2,310
25 to 44 years 7,500 340 1,150 360 9,340
45 to 64 years 1,020 50 170 420 1,650
65 years and over 200 50 30 380 640
15 and over 10,320 500 1,880 1,250 13,940
Men
15 to 24 years 1,530 60 500 70 2,140
25 to 44 years 6,950 120 1,260 150 8,470
45 to 64 years 1,190 50 220 190 1,650
65 years and over 250 30 10 200 490
15 and over 9,910 250 1,980 610 12,750
Total
15 to 24 years 3,120 130 1,030 170 4,450
25 to 44 years 14,450 450 2,410 510 17,810
45 to 64 years 2,210 100 390 610 3,300
65 years and over 440 70 40 580 1,120
15 and over 20,220 760 3,860 1,860 26,690
 
Women
15 to 24 years 69% 3% 23% 4% 100%
25 to 44 years 80% 4% 12% 4% 100%
45 to 64 years 62% 3% 10% 25% 100%
65 years and over 31% 8% 5% 59% 100%
15 and over 74% 4% 13% 9% 100%
Men
15 to 24 years 71% 3% 23% 3% 100%
25 to 44 years 82% 1% 15% 2% 100%
45 to 64 years 72% 3% 13% 12% 100%
65 years and over 51% 6% 2% 41% 100%
15 and over 78% 2% 16% 5% 100%
Total
15 to 24 years 70% 3% 23% 4% 100%
25 to 44 years 81% 3% 14% 3% 100%
45 to 64 years 67% 3% 12% 18% 100%
65 years and over 39% 6% 4% 52% 100%
15 and over 76% 3% 14% 7% 100%

Very recent immigrant women are somewhat less likely than men to have conversational knowledge of English or French. Among Ottawa’s women who immigrated between 1996 and 2001, for example, 9% could speak neither English nor French. The comparable figure among men arriving in this period was 5%.

The proportion of Ottawa’s immigrants able to carry on a conversation in English or French decreases with age. Among immigrants under age 45 who landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001, almost all are able to speak an official language, and there is little difference between men and women in this regard. Among those aged 45 to 64, however, the percentage that can speak English or French is lower. Also, English or French speaking ability is lower among women than among men in this age group. For both men and women, seniors aged 65 and over are least likely to have the ability to converse in English or French.

Ability to converse in either or both official languages has improved with the very recent immigrant cohort: 3% more men and 3% more women had this ability in 2001 compared to a similar cohort (those who landed within the five years prior to the census) in 1996. This may reflect changes in countries of origin, the increase in the number of economic immigrants and perhaps also greater awareness among immigrants of the need to speak Canada’s languages before and after arrival.

About three-quarters of very recent immigrants in Ottawa speak English and one in seven speak both English and French. Only a small share reports knowledge of French only.

Table B-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—knowledge of official languages by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  French only English only French and English Neither French nor English Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,050 128,320 115,720 247,130
Immigrants 1,580 56,680 17,640 4,670 80,560
 Immigrated before 1986 470 29,810 10,600 1,560 42,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 610 16,560 5,170 1,860 24,200
 Immigrated 1996-2001 500 10,320 1,880 1,250 13,940
Men
Canadian-born 1,560 129,520 100,910 232,030
Immigrants 780 54,610 17,320 2,370 75,080
 Immigrated before 1986 210 28,200 10,560 830 39,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 320 16,510 4,800 950 22,570
 Immigrated 1996-2001 250 9,910 1,980 610 12,750
Total
Canadian-born 4,610 257,840 216,630 479,150
Immigrants 2,350 111,290 34,960 7,040 155,640
 Immigrated before 1986 670 58,000 21,140 2,390 82,200
 Immigrated 1986-1995 930 33,070 9,970 2,800 46,760
 Immigrated 1996-2001 760 20,220 3,860 1,860 26,690
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 52% 47% 100%
Immigrants 2% 70% 22% 6% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 70% 25% 4% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 68% 21% 8% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4% 74% 13% 9% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 1% 56% 43% 100%
Immigrants 1% 73% 23% 3% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 71% 27% 2% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1% 73% 21% 4% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2% 78% 16% 5% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 1% 54% 45% 100%
Immigrants 2% 72% 22% 5% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 71% 26% 3% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2% 71% 21% 6% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3% 76% 14% 7% 100%

Immigrants living in Ottawa are predominantly English-speaking regardless of when they came to Canada. Only a tiny fraction speaks French but not English, and in this they greatly resemble the Canadian-born population of the city. The share having command of both languages is larger for earlier immigrants than for the more recently landed.

Two in three very recent immigrants speak a foreign language at home

For the majority of Ottawa’s recent immigrants, the language spoken most often at home is one other than English or French. Two in three immigrants who landed between 1996 and 2001 most often speak a foreign language in their homes.

The use of a foreign language is also high among other immigrant cohorts. More than one-half of those who immigrated between 1986 and 1995 and nearly one-quarter of those who immigrated prior to 1986 most often speak a foreign language at home.

Figure B-2: Immigrants by period of immigration—15 years of age and over — use of a foreign language at home, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

Figure B-2

The use of foreign languages in the home was slightly more common in 2001 than in 1996, for a given length of stay in Canada. Of very recent immigrants in 1996, 65% reported use of a foreign language in the home. Among those who had lived in Canada from 5 to 15 years, 53% commonly used a foreign language in 2001, compared to 48% in 1996.

Very high level of education among very recent immigrants

The share of immigrants with only a minimal education is three times as large as the share of the Canadian-born with a minimal education. The Canadian-born are more likely than immigrants to have some high school, a high school diploma or a college or trade diploma. University degrees, however, are more common among all immigrant groups than among the Canadian-born. In particular, very recent immigrants boast a remarkable number of university graduates. This high proportion of university graduates is most likely a result of immigrant selection policy, which places a large emphasis on education for immigrants in the economic category.

When education levels are compared by age group, the younger generation has a much higher level of education than older groups, whether born inside or outside Canada. Seven in ten Canadian-born persons under 45 years of age have a post-secondary diploma or degree, compared to 45% of men age 65 and over and 31% of women age 65 and over. A similar difference in educational qualifications is observed among immigrants.

Table B-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—highest level of education, by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 9,130 45,230 63,660 67,170 61,940 247,120
Immigrants 8,400 11,440 16,130 20,780 23,820 80,550
 Immigrated before 1986 5,200 5,640 8,100 12,170 11,320 42,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,420 4,180 5,420 5,690 6,490 24,190
 Immigrated 1996-2001 780 1,640 2,610 2,920 6,000 13,940
Men
Canadian-born 7,410 44,160 53,780 62,050 64,640 232,030
Immigrants 5,170 9,250 12,680 17,360 30,620 75,080
 Immigrated before 1986 3,570 3,920 5,700 10,760 15,830 39,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,300 3,970 5,070 4,750 7,490 22,570
 Immigrated 1996-2001 310 1,360 1,910 1,870 7,310 12,750
Total
Canadian-born 16,530 89,390 117,450 129,220 126,570 479,150
Immigrants 13,560 20,690 28,810 38,140 54,430 155,640
 Immigrated before 1986 8,780 9,550 13,800 22,930 27,150 82,190
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,710 8,150 10,490 10,440 13,980 46,760
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,080 3,000 4,520 4,780 13,310 26,690
 
Women
Canadian-born 4% 18% 26% 27% 25% 100%
Immigrants 10% 14% 20% 26% 30% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 13% 19% 29% 27% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10% 17% 22% 24% 27% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 12% 19% 21% 43% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 3% 19% 23% 27% 28% 100%
Immigrants 7% 12% 17% 23% 41% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 10% 14% 27% 40% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 18% 22% 21% 33% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2% 11% 15% 15% 57% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 3% 19% 25% 27% 26% 100%
Immigrants 9% 13% 19% 25% 35% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 12% 17% 28% 33% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8% 17% 22% 22% 30% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4% 11% 17% 18% 50% 100%

Table B-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 years of age and over, with no high school diploma or with post-secondary diploma or degree—by age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  No high school diploma With post-secondary diploma or degree
  25 to 44
years
45 to 65
years
65 years
and over
25 to 44
years
45 to 65
years
65 years
and over
Women
Canadian-born 8,770 13,290 14,910 68,870 39,210 10,500
Immigrants 4,080 5,920 6,820 22,350 15,740 4,730
 Immigrated before 1986 1,310 4,070 5,300 6,730 12,200 4,140
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,080 1,510 1,200 8,280 2,590 360
 Immigrated 1996-2001 700 360 320 7,340 960 220
Men
Canadian-born 10,990 12,010 8,800 65,620 41,910 11,010
Immigrants 2,840 3,930 4,060 22,450 18,050 6,240
 Immigrated before 1986 1,060 3,000 3,240 6,770 13,860 5,650
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,420 830 680 8,370 2,860 350
 Immigrated 1996-2001 380 120 150 7,310 1,340 260
Total
Canadian-born 19,750 25,280 23,700 134,480 81,120 21,520
Immigrants 6,930 9,850 10,870 44,810 33,800 10,980
 Immigrated before 1986 2,360 7,050 8,530 13,510 26,060 9,770
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,490 2,330 1,880 16,650 5,440 710
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,090 480 470 14,660 2,300 490
 
Women
Canadian-born 9% 19% 44% 70% 55% 31%
Immigrants 13% 22% 49% 69% 60% 34%
 Immigrated before 1986 13% 21% 46% 68% 62% 36%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 16% 30% 68% 64% 51% 21%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 22% 50% 79% 58% 34%
Men
Canadian-born 11% 18% 36% 68% 62% 45%
Immigrants 9% 16% 35% 75% 72% 54%
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 16% 33% 71% 72% 57%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 19% 54% 70% 66% 28%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4% 7% 30% 86% 81% 54%
Total
Canadian-born 10% 18% 41% 69% 59% 37%
Immigrants 11% 19% 42% 72% 65% 43%
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 18% 40% 69% 67% 45%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 25% 62% 67% 58% 23%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 14% 41% 82% 70% 43%

Eighty-six percent of aged 25-44 who immigrated during the 1996-2001 period have a post-secondary diploma or degree, compared to 68% of Canadian-born men. Eight in ten very recent immigrant women in the same age group have a post-secondary diploma or degree, also surpassing their Canadian-born contemporaries. The pattern in other age groups for post-secondary degrees and diplomas is similar. In 1996,1 immigrants who had landed in the five years prior to the census were not as well educated as very recent immigrants in 2001.

Recent immigrants add to Ottawa’s pool of scientists and engineers

Seven out of ten men who immigrated after 1986 and have a post-secondary diploma or degree majored in physical sciences, engineering or trades. This compares to five out of ten Canadian-born men. Among women with a post-secondary diploma or degree, almost four in ten recent immigrants have studied some physical science or technology, compared to just over one in ten Canadian-born women with similar education levels.

Table B-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, with post-secondary diploma or degree—major field of study, by gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Physical sciences, engineering and trades Social sciences, education and arts Commerce, manage-
ment and business administration
Health professions and related technologies Total
Women
Canadian-born 16,380 61,040 31,590 19,910 128,910
Immigrants 10,610 17,430 9,640 6,850 44,520
 Immigrated before 1986 3,570 4,310 2,560 1,720 12,160
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,690 10,230 5,530 4,020 23,470
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,350 2,890 1,560 1,110 8,910
Men
Canadian-born 60,320 38,860 23,080 4,290 126,540
Immigrants 29,720 10,170 5,660 2,370 47,920
 Immigrated before 1986 7,730 2,390 1,500 600 12,220
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15,390 6,440 3,310 1,420 26,540
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6,610 1,320 860 360 9,140
Total
Canadian-born 76,720 99,890 54,670 24,200 255,470
Immigrants 40,340 27,590 15,300 9,210 92,430
 Immigrated before 1986 11,330 6,700 4,050 2,310 24,380
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19,050 16,680 8,830 5,430 49,990
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9,950 4,210 2,420 1,480 18,050
 
Women
Canadian-born 13% 47% 25% 15% 100%
Immigrants 24% 39% 22% 15% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 29% 35% 21% 14% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 16% 44% 24% 17% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 38% 32% 17% 12% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 48% 31% 18% 3% 100%
Immigrants 62% 21% 12% 5% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 63% 20% 12% 5% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 58% 24% 12% 5% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 72% 14% 9% 4% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 30% 39% 21% 9% 100%
Immigrants 44% 30% 17% 10% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 46% 27% 17% 9% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 38% 33% 18% 11% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 55% 23% 13% 8% 100%

By contrast, recent immigrants are represented in smaller proportions than the Canadian-born in the social sciences, education and the arts (taken as a group), and commerce, management and business administration (taken as a group). Nearly one-half of Canadian-born women have diplomas or degrees in social science, education and the arts compared to one-third of very recent immigrant women. For men, the share of diplomas and degrees in social sciences, education and the arts is twice as large for the Canadian-born as for very recent immigrants. The several immigrant cohorts and the Canadian-born are quite alike with respect to the proportions who specialized in health professions and related technologies.

Recent immigrants more likely to attend school

Very recent immigrants are relatively likely to be in school. School attendance is at least twice as high among very recent immigrants as among the Canadian-born in both the 25-44 and 45-64 age groups, and it is also relatively high among those who landed during the 1986-1995 period.

Table B-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, attending school—by age and gender, Ottawa Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years
Women
Canadian-born 30,840 13,790 3,520 70% 14% 5%
Immigrants 5,950 7,250 1,770 76% 22% 7%
 Immigrated before 1986 920 1,500 990 80% 15% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,400 2,560 490 77% 20% 10%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,640 3,210 310 71% 34% 18%
Men
Canadian-born 29,880 11,230 2,400 68% 12% 4%
Immigrants 6,320 5,910 1,130 76% 20% 4%
 Immigrated before 1986 740 1,110 550 65% 12% 3%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,860 2,260 280 77% 19% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,730 2,570 300 80% 30% 18%
Total
Canadian-born 60,730 25,010 5,930 69% 13% 4%
Immigrants 12,270 13,160 2,910 76% 21% 6%
 Immigrated before 1986 1,660 2,600 1,530 72% 13% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7,260 4,810 770 77% 19% 8%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,370 5,770 600 76% 32% 18%

School attendance, of course, is much higher in the youngest age group, persons of 15 to 24 years of age, than in older age groups. Here, also, we find a higher rate of attendance among recently immigrated men and women than among their Canadian-born counterparts. By and large, school attendance rates for all immigrant cohorts were similar in the 1996 Census.

Date Modified: