Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Québec—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower the more recent the arrival

Very recent immigrants are generally not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. The difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is eight percentage points for women, and nine for men.

Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is rather more like that of the Canadian-born. A pattern of adjustment to and increasing involvement of immigrants in the Canadian labour market with longer stay is evident in all three age groups, for both men and women.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 28,370 83,820 57,230 169,410
Immigrants 500 2,690 1,550 4,730
 Immigrated before 1986 140 770 1,180 2,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 190 930 330 1,440
 Immigrated 1996-2001 170 990 40 1,190
Men
Canadian-born 29,550 89,960 64,630 184,140
Immigrants 450 3,280 2,470 6,200
 Immigrated before 1986 170 920 1,880 2,960
 Immigrated 1986-1995 220 1,300 440 1,960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 60 1,070 150 1,270
Total
Canadian-born 57,920 173,770 121,850 353,530
Immigrants 940 5,970 4,010 10,920
 Immigrated before 1986 310 1,680 3,070 5,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 420 2,230 760 3,400
 Immigrated 1996-2001 230 2,050 180 2,450

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 64% 86% 61% 72% 169,410
Immigrants 47% 77% 65% 68% 4,730
 Immigrated before 1986 60% 81% 65% 70% 2,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 40% 80% 66% 68% 1,440
 Immigrated 1996-2001 48% 71% 35% 64% 1,190
Men
Canadian-born 65% 93% 76% 81% 184,140
Immigrants 46% 88% 81% 80% 6,200
 Immigrated before 1986 63% 92% 80% 82% 2,960
 Immigrated 1986-1995 46% 91% 90% 81% 1,960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 23% 82% 66% 72% 1,270
Total
Canadian-born 64% 89% 68% 76% 353,530
Immigrants 47% 82% 73% 74% 10,920
 Immigrated before 1986 63% 87% 74% 77% 5,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 43% 86% 77% 75% 3,400
 Immigrated 1996-2001 39% 76% 56% 68% 2,450

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Men aged 25 to 44 years who immigrated before 1986 and also those who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period have labour force participation rates similar to Canadian-born men in the same age group. The labour force participation rates for women aged 25 to 44 years who immigrated before 1986 and also those who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period are just slightly lower than those of Canadian-born women in this age group.

Labour force participation generally increased between 1996 and 2001 for the Canadian-born as well as for immigrants—including recent immigrants—of prime working age. Recent immigrant women in particular were more active in the labour market.

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-1, women

Figure D-1, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants.

For most education levels there is a common pattern of relatively low participation rates for very recent immigrants, and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born with longer stay. However, there are some exceptions to this pattern. For example, both men and women with a university degree who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period had higher labour force participation rates than earlier immigrants.

Women who immigrated in the 15 years before the census and who had a high school diploma or a post-secondary degree or diploma had labour force participation rates at a considerably higher rate in 2001 than their counterparts five years earlier in 1996.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 17,280 46,070 69,820 36,250 169,410
Immigrants 460 770 1,700 1,810 4,730
 Immigrated before 1986 200 340 770 800 2,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 240 310 460 470 1,440
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40 140 470 560 1,190
Men
Canadian-born 7,400 20,660 44,900 71,450 184,140
Immigrants 240 480 1,030 2,010 6,200
 Immigrated before 1986 100 230 510 1,060 2,960
 Immigrated 1986-1995 120 180 390 600 1,960
 Immigrated 1996-2001 20 70 120 390 1,270
Total
Canadian-born 12,080 33,260 90,960 141,270 353,530
Immigrants 440 750 1,800 3,710 10,920
 Immigrated before 1986 160 360 850 1,810 5,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 230 280 690 1,060 3,400
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40 110 260 840 2,450

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 40% 69% 82% 88% 72%
Immigrants 39% 58% 77% 81% 68%
 Immigrated before 1986 49% 59% 75% 82% 70%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 44% 65% 79% 85% 68%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 17% 52% 74% 78% 64%
Men
Canadian-born 60% 80% 89% 89% 81%
Immigrants 59% 74% 84% 88% 80%
 Immigrated before 1986 65% 77% 86% 86% 82%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 62% 77% 86% 94% 81%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 33% 52% 81% 85% 72%
Total
Canadian-born 51% 74% 85% 89% 76%
Immigrants 49% 66% 81% 85% 74%
 Immigrated before 1986 58% 69% 82% 84% 77%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50% 70% 83% 88% 75%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 29% 52% 76% 81% 68%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-2, women

Figure D-2, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Unemployment higher among recent immigrants

Recent immigrants are more likely to experience unemployment than those who have been in the country for a longer period of time. Also, unemployment rates were highest for the youngest age group. Recent immigrant men in the Québec CMA experienced unemployment rates of 22% for the youngest age group (15-24 years), 13% for those aged 25-44 years, and 11% for those aged 45-64 years. The unemployment rates for recent immigrant women aged 15-24 years, 25-44 years and 45-64 years were 28%, 14% and 17%, respectively. Unemployment is significantly lower among persons who immigrated before 1986 and more comparable to that of the Canadian-born. The unemployment rate declined since 1996 for all groups of immigrants and the Canadian-born.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,030 4,500 3,260 10,780
Immigrants 120 340 150 600
 Immigrated before 1986 20 60 90 160
 Immigrated 1986-2001 100 270 60 430
Men
Canadian-born 3,790 5,410 3,740 12,930
Immigrants 80 380 180 640
 Immigrated before 1986 30 70 110 200
 Immigrated 1986-2001 60 310 70 440
Total
Canadian-born 6,810 9,910 6,990 23,710
Immigrants 200 720 330 1,240
 Immigrated before 1986 30 140 190 360
 Immigrated 1986-2001 160 570 140 860

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by age and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 11% 5% 6% 6% 10,780
Immigrants 23% 12% 10% 13% 600
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 8% 7% 8% 160
 Immigrated 1986-2001 28% 14% 17% 16% 430
Men
Canadian-born 13% 6% 6% 7% 12,930
Immigrants 18% 12% 7% 10% 640
 Immigrated before 1986 15% 7% 6% 7% 200
 Immigrated 1986-2001 22% 13% 11% 13% 440
Total
Canadian-born 12% 6% 6% 7% 23,710
Immigrants 21% 12% 8% 11% 1,240
 Immigrated before 1986 10% 8% 6% 7% 360
 Immigrated 1986-2001 24% 13% 14% 15% 860

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 2,290 3,550 3,610 1,360 10,780
Immigrants 100 130 210 170 600
 Immigrated before 1986 50 20 100 20 160
 Immigrated 1986-2001 70 90 130 130 430
Men
Canadian-born 3,600 3,650 4,360 1,330 12,930
Immigrants 90 120 190 240 640
 Immigrated before 1986 40 40 70 40 200
 Immigrated 1986-2001 60 80 100 210 440
Total
Canadian-born 5,890 7,190 7,960 2,690 23,710
Immigrants 210 230 400 400 1,240
 Immigrated before 1986 100 60 150 80 360
 Immigrated 1986-2001 110 190 250 320 860

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by level of education and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 13% 8% 5% 4% 6%
Immigrants 22% 16% 12% 9% 13%
 Immigrated before 1986 25% 6% 12% 2% 8%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 25% 20% 14% 13% 16%
Men
Canadian-born 13% 8% 6% 3% 7%
Immigrants 13% 11% 9% 10% 10%
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 8% 6% 3% 7%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 15% 16% 10% 15% 13%
Total
Canadian-born 13% 8% 6% 4% 7%
Immigrants 17% 13% 11% 9% 11%
 Immigrated before 1986 18% 7% 8% 4% 7%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 17% 20% 13% 14% 15%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time generally have lower unemployment rates than more recent immigrants with the same level of education. For instance, recent immigrant men with a high school diploma have an unemployment rate of 16%. The rate is 8% for earlier immigrants who landed before 1986. Immigrant women without a university degree experience more unemployment than men during the first fifteen years in Canada. The gap between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is also larger for women than for men, with the exception of those with a university degree.

In 2001, the unemployment rate for recent immigrants was significantly lower than in 1996, regardless of their level of education.

Share of men and women with jobs increases with length of stay

One-half of very recent immigrant women aged 15 to 64 years are employed compared to two-thirds of Canadian-born women. For men the difference is larger—fifty-five percent of very recent immigrants are employed compared to three-quarters of Canadian-born men.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 25,340 79,320 53,970 158,630
Immigrants 380 2,360 1,390 4,130
 Immigrated before 1986 120 710 1,100 1,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 140 840 280 1,250
 Immigrated 1996-2001 120 810 30 950
Men
Canadian-born 25,770 84,550 60,890 171,200
Immigrants 370 2,900 2,290 5,560
 Immigrated before 1986 140 850 1,780 2,770
 Immigrated 1986-1995 190 1,230 410 1,820
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40 830 100 970
Total
Canadian-born 51,110 163,860 114,870 329,840
Immigrants 750 5,260 3,680 9,680
 Immigrated before 1986 270 1,560 2,880 4,700
 Immigrated 1986-1995 320 2,060 680 3,060
 Immigrated 1996-2001 160 1,640 130 1,920

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 15 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 57% 81% 57% 67% 158,630
Immigrants 36% 67% 58% 59% 4,130
 Immigrated before 1986 53% 75% 61% 65% 1,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 28% 72% 56% 59% 1,250
 Immigrated 1996-2001 35% 58% 25% 52% 950
Men
Canadian-born 56% 87% 71% 75% 171,200
Immigrants 38% 77% 75% 71% 5,560
 Immigrated before 1986 54% 85% 76% 77% 2,770
 Immigrated 1986-1995 40% 85% 83% 76% 1,820
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15% 63% 45% 55% 970
Total
Canadian-born 57% 84% 64% 71% 329,840
Immigrants 37% 73% 67% 66% 9,680
 Immigrated before 1986 55% 81% 69% 72% 4,700
 Immigrated 1986-1995 33% 79% 69% 67% 3,060
 Immigrated 1996-2001 28% 60% 40% 53% 1,920

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Among earlier immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is generally more common than among more recent immigrants. Immigrants 25 years of age and over who have lived in the country for 5 years or more have largely caught up to the Canadian-born, although women aged 25 to 44 have rates well below their Canadian-born counterparts regardless of when they immigrated.

In 2001, employment rates were significantly higher than in 1996 among all groups of women and most groups of men. Among very recent immigrant men aged 15 to 24 years and 45 to 64 years, employment rates were lower in 1996 by seven and five percentage points, respectively.

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs more common for very recent immigrants

The proportion of employed immigrants who work part-time decreases as the length of stay in Canada increases. The proportion of employed persons who work mostly part-time varies considerably by age and gender. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to work part time, whether they are immigrants or Canadian-born.

Slightly more than one-half of employed Canadian-born young adults (15-24 years) work part-time in comparison to 68% of very recent immigrants in the same age group. Twenty percent to one-third of employed women aged 25 to 64 years (not including very recent immigrants aged 45-64) work part-time, while for men the shares range from 7% to 17%.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—age and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 18,420 16,370 13,150 47,930
Immigrants 310 640 440 1,380
 Immigrated before 1986 110 210 320 630
 Immigrated 1986-1995 110 230 110 440
 Immigrated 1996-1999 100 210 20 320
Men
Canadian-born 15,560 5,890 4,670 26,120
Immigrants 260 340 230 830
 Immigrated before 1986 120 60 190 370
 Immigrated 1986-1995 110 140 50 300
 Immigrated 1996-1999 30 140 0 170
Total
Canadian-born 33,970 22,260 17,820 74,050
Immigrants 580 990 670 2,230
 Immigrated before 1986 230 280 490 1,000
 Immigrated 1986-1995 220 370 160 750
 Immigrated 1996-1999 130 350 20 490

Note: Tables D-11 and D-12 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed working mostly part-time, by age and gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 60% 20% 23% 28%
Immigrants 60% 27% 29% 32%
 Immigrated before 1986 66% 26% 27% 30%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50% 28% 35% 33%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 70% 27% 43% 34%
Men
Canadian-born 48% 7% 7% 14%
Immigrants 57% 11% 10% 14%
 Immigrated before 1986 59% 7% 10% 12%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 54% 11% 11% 15%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 67% 17% 0% 18%
Total
Canadian-born 54% 13% 14% 21%
Immigrants 60% 19% 17% 22%
 Immigrated before 1986 63% 17% 16% 20%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 53% 18% 22% 23%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 68% 22% 15% 26%

Note: Tables D-11 and D-12 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Many very recent immigrants in health and science occupations

Employed very recent immigrants who landed in Canada in the last five years are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in health and science occupations and in management and social occupations. Approximately 60% of employed very recent immigrants work in one of these occupations, compared to four in ten Canadian-born. However, immigrants who have been in the country 5 to 15 years are more likely to work in occupations in sales and services. Relatively few recent immigrants work in administrative occupations.

Earlier immigrants who have been in the country for more than 15 years are represented more in management and social occupations than all other immigrant cohorts. There are probably many factors that contribute to these patterns, including the selection of immigrants as well as their level of education and field of studies.

Table D-13: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Processing Admin-
istrative
Management and social sciences Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 28,800 3,400 44,620 31,600 2,190 22,690 133,290
Immigrants 900 100 720 1,190 90 750 3,740
 Immigrated
 before 1986
430 30 340 650 50 320 1,810
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
310 40 230 290 20 250 1,120
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
170 30 140 280 20 200 840
Men
Canadian-born 28,660 8,590 16,730 35,450 31,730 24,290 145,440
Immigrants 1,270 190 330 1,680 540 1,200 5,190
 Immigrated
 before 1986
610 60 200 980 280 500 2,630
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
460 130 100 400 140 410 1,630
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
220 30 40 260 120 290 930
Total
Canadian-born 57,470 12,000 61,350 67,060 33,920 46,980 278,730
Immigrants 2,180 290 1,050 2,860 630 1,960 8,940
 Immigrated
 before 1986
1,030 100 540 1,630 320 830 4,420
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
760 140 340 710 160 650 2,740
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
380 50 180 540 140 480 1,760
 
Women
Canadian-born 22% 3% 33% 24% 2% 17% 100%
Immigrants 24% 3% 19% 32% 2% 20% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
24% 2% 19% 36% 2% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
27% 3% 21% 26% 2% 22% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
20% 4% 17% 33% 2% 23% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 20% 6% 11% 24% 22% 17% 100%
Immigrants 24% 4% 6% 32% 10% 23% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
23% 2% 7% 37% 11% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
28% 8% 6% 25% 8% 25% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
23% 3% 4% 28% 13% 31% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 21% 4% 22% 24% 12% 17% 100%
Immigrants 24% 3% 12% 32% 7% 22% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
23% 2% 12% 37% 7% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
28% 5% 12% 26% 6% 24% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
22% 3% 10% 30% 8% 27% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-3, women

Figure D-3, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Many recent immigrants in business services and the public sector

In Québec, a large proportion of recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 work in business services and the public sector. Almost 40% of the Canadian-born and a slightly smaller proportion of recent immigrants are employed in the public sector. Recent immigrants are more heavily represented in business services and hospitality and other services than the Canadian-born. In 1996, more very recent immigrants worked in hospitality and other services and fewer in business services.

Table D-14: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Con-
struction and Trans-
portation
Trade Business services Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 8,250 5,280 17,530 22,650 61,870 17,720 133,300
Immigrants 200 110 420 540 1,800 690 3,700
 Immigrated
 before 1986
70 70 170 210 1,040 280 1,800
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
70 40 190 180 420 240 1,100
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
90 10 90 150 350 140 800
Men
Canadian-born 21,320 23,080 24,710 21,150 41,500 13,680 145,400
Immigrants 600 500 580 860 1,600 1,060 5,200
 Immigrated
 before 1986
280 230 300 350 920 550 2,600
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
200 200 150 280 420 370 1,600
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
130 70 120 220 260 140 900
Total
Canadian-born 29,580 28,350 42,230 43,790 103,360 31,400 278,700
Immigrants 820 610 1,000 1,380 3,400 1,750 8,900
 Immigrated
 before 1986
340 310 480 560 1,920 850 4,400
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
240 240 350 440 840 630 2,800
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
210 80 210 370 620 270 1,800
 
Women
Canadian-born 6% 4% 13% 17% 46% 13% 100%
Immigrants 5% 3% 11% 14% 48% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
4% 4% 9% 11% 58% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
6% 4% 17% 16% 38% 22% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
10% 1% 11% 18% 42% 17% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 15% 16% 17% 15% 29% 9% 100%
Immigrants 12% 10% 11% 17% 31% 20% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
10% 9% 11% 13% 35% 21% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
12% 12% 9% 17% 26% 23% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
14% 7% 13% 24% 28% 15% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 11% 10% 15% 16% 37% 11% 100%
Immigrants 9% 7% 11% 15% 38% 20% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
8% 7% 11% 13% 43% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
9% 9% 13% 16% 31% 23% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
12% 4% 12% 21% 35% 15% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-4, women

Figure D-4, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Very recent immigrants work in higher skill jobs

A larger share of very recent immigrants—those who immigrated between 1996 and 2001—work in jobs that require a higher level of skills in comparison to the Canadian-born. One-third of Canadian-born men work in jobs that require a university education compared to 53% of very recent immigrant men and 49% of men who immigrated before 1986. In comparison, 43% of immigrant women who landed after 1995 are employed in jobs that require a university education compared to 31% of Canadian-born women. Ten percent of recent immigrants work in jobs that require no formal education compared to 8% of the Canadian-born.

Table D-15: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,380 40,620 40,990 41,320 133,290
Immigrants 300 890 1,020 1,550 3,750
 Immigrated before 1986 70 450 480 810 1,800
 Immigrated 1986-1995 140 250 350 390 1,120
 Immigrated 1996-2001 80 200 200 360 840
Men
Canadian-born 12,400 37,960 45,170 49,920 145,440
Immigrants 380 900 1,410 2,500 5,190
 Immigrated before 1986 130 400 850 1,290 2,630
 Immigrated 1986-1995 210 310 380 740 1,630
 Immigrated 1996-2001 60 200 180 490 930
Total
Canadian-born 22,770 78,570 86,150 91,240 278,730
Immigrants 680 1,780 2,430 4,050 8,940
 Immigrated before 1986 190 830 1,320 2,080 4,430
 Immigrated 1986-1995 340 550 730 1,120 2,740
 Immigrated 1996-2001 140 400 370 860 1,760
 
Women
Canadian-born 8% 30% 31% 31% 100%
Immigrants 8% 24% 27% 41% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 25% 26% 45% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 13% 22% 31% 35% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 24% 23% 43% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 9% 26% 31% 34% 100%
Immigrants 7% 17% 27% 48% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 15% 32% 49% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 13% 19% 23% 45% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 21% 19% 53% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 28% 31% 33% 100%
Immigrants 8% 20% 27% 45% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 19% 30% 47% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 20% 27% 41% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 23% 21% 49% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The information presented in Table D-15 does not directly indicate whether skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels required for the jobs of employed recent immigrants and the Canadian-born with their level of education. This is done in Table D-16 for persons holding a university degree.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-5, women

Figure D-5, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Jobs of university graduates similar in level of skill

Recent immigrants with a university degree are as likely or more likely to work in jobs that require a university education than the Canadian-born. Almost 70% of recent immigrant women with a university degree and nearly 85% of earlier immigrant women with a university degree work in a job requiring a university education compared to 73% of Canadian-born women with a university degree. More than 80% of recent immigrant men with a university degree have a job requiring a university education in comparison to almost 80% of Canadian-born men with a university degree. Eighty-five percent of earlier immigrant men with a university degree are employed in jobs requiring a university education.

Table D-16: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 300 3,480 4,990 23,330 32,090
Immigrants 20 180 200 1,200 1,580
 Immigrated before 1986 60 70 630 750
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10 40 80 300 420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10 80 40 290 420
Men
Canadian-born 590 2,670 5,000 28,600 36,850
Immigrants 10 150 190 1,850 2,200
 Immigrated before 1986 50 120 900 1,050
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10 40 40 560 660
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10 50 40 400 500
Total
Canadian-born 880 6,140 10,000 51,940 68,940
Immigrants 30 310 390 3,050 3,780
 Immigrated before 1986 110 170 1,500 1,780
 Immigrated 1986-1995 30 90 140 850 1,090
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10 130 90 700 920
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 11% 16% 73% 100%
Immigrants 1% 11% 12% 76% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 7% 9% 84% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2% 10% 19% 70% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2% 19% 10% 68% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 2% 7% 14% 78% 100%
Immigrants 0% 7% 9% 84% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 4% 11% 85% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2% 5% 5% 84% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2% 10% 8% 81% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 1% 9% 14% 75% 100%
Immigrants 1% 8% 10% 81% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 6% 10% 85% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2% 8% 13% 78% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1% 14% 9% 77% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates with jobs requiring university education, by gender, Québec Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

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