Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Regina—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part C: Families and Households

Family and household affiliation of individuals

Older recent immigrants more likely to be living with relatives

Very few recent immigrants live alone. Like the Canadian-born population, a large majority of recent immigrants live in households with at least two people, and in most cases, these are people with whom they are related by blood, marriage, or adoption. In fact, recent immigrants in Regina are slightly more likely than the Canadian-born population to live with relatives. This difference is seen in all age groups. Among Regina’s Canadian-born population 45 to 64 years of age, 15% live alone. In comparison, only 8% of very recent immigrants 45 to 64 years of age live alone.

Table C-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—living arrangements, by age, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born Immigrants Immigrated
before 1986
Immigrated
1986-1995
Immigrated
1996-2001
All ages (including 0-14 years)
Living alone 19,570 1,800 1,390 220 200
Living with non-relatives only 7,210 260 160 50 50
Living with relatives 148,050 11,940 7,530 2,870 1,540
15-24 years
Living alone 1,450 70 10 40 30
Living with non-relatives only 2,840 30 0 10 10
Living with relatives 24,220 970 210 500 240
25-44 years
Living alone 5,920 360 100 120 140
Living with non-relatives only 3,060 120 40 40 30
Living with relatives 43,490 3,420 1,460 1,240 700
45-64 years
Living alone 5,610 380 320 40 20
Living with non-relatives only 790 40 40 0 0
Living with relatives 31,190 4,500 3,580 760 180
65 years and over
Living alone 6,600 1,000 950 30 20
Living with non-relatives only 300 70 80 0 0
Living with relatives 11,840 2,420 2,240 130 40
 
All ages (including 0-14 years)
Living alone 11% 13% 15% 7% 11%
Living with non-relatives only 4% 2% 2% 2% 3%
Living with relatives 85% 85% 83% 92% 86%
15-24 years
Living alone 5% 7% 5% 6% 9%
Living with non-relatives only 10% 2% 0% 2% 4%
Living with relatives 85% 91% 95% 92% 87%
25-44 years
Living alone 11% 9% 6% 9% 16%
Living with non-relatives only 6% 3% 2% 3% 3%
Living with relatives 83% 88% 92% 89% 81%
45-64 years
Living alone 15% 8% 8% 4% 8%
Living with non-relatives only 2% 1% 1% 0% 0%
Living with relatives 83% 92% 91% 96% 92%
65 years and over
Living alone 35% 29% 29% 19% 30%
Living with non-relatives only 2% 2% 2% 0% 0%
Living with relatives 63% 69% 69% 81% 70%

Note: For definitions of living arrangements and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Recent immigrants more likely to live in extended families

Recent immigrants are similar to Canadian-born individuals in that most live in nuclear families, with no relatives other than the immediate members of the nuclear family. However, recent immigrants are more likely than the Canadian-born to live in extended family situations. Of the Canadian-born population living with one or more relatives, only 5% are part of an extended family compared to 12% of very recent immigrants and 19% of other recent immigrants.

Figure C-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage living with relatives in an extended family, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure C-1

Note: For definitions of extended and nuclear families, see the Glossary. Whereas Table C-1 includes all persons, Figure C-1 and Table C-2 include only persons who are living with relatives. A small percentage of individuals living with relatives are in “non-family” households. An example might be two adult brothers living together. The percentage of individuals in these situations is not shown in the table and figure in this section.

Extended family living arrangements are most common among older recent immigrants. Older recent immigrants living in extended families are most often related to someone within a nuclear family, and are not members of the nuclear family itself. Young very recent immigrants are also more likely than the Canadian-born of the same age to be living in extended families.

Table C-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—living with relatives in nuclear or extended family, by age, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born Immigrants Immigrated
before 1986
Immigrated
1986-1995
Immigrated
1996-2001
All ages
Nuclear family 138,500 10,250 6,700 2,260 1,290
Extended family 6,780 1,380 630 560 190
Under 15 years
Nuclear family 35,730 530 - 210 320
Extended family 1,380 100 - 35 60
15-24 years
Nuclear family 21,980 780 150 440 200
Extended family 1,410 150 50 70 30
25-44 years
Nuclear family 40,900 2,900 1,310 970 620
Extended family 1,810 430 150 240 50
45-64 years
Nuclear family 29,210 4,010 3,280 580 150
Extended family 1,530 440 250 160 30
65 years and over
Nuclear family 10,690 2,040 1,960 70 20
Extended family 660 280 210 60 30
 
All ages
Nuclear family 94% 86% 89% 79% 84%
Extended family 5% 12% 8% 19% 12%
Under 15 years
Nuclear family 96% 85% - 85% 84%
Extended family 4% 15% - 15% 16%
15-24 years
Nuclear family 91% 81% 73% 86% 81%
Extended family 6% 16% 23% 14% 13%
25-44 years
Nuclear family 94% 85% 89% 78% 88%
Extended family 4% 13% 10% 19% 7%
45-64 years
Nuclear family 94% 89% 91% 78% 86%
Extended family 5% 10% 7% 21% 14%
65 years and over
Nuclear family 90% 84% 87% 50% 38%
Extended family 6% 11% 9% 42% 63%

Note: For definitions of extended and nuclear families, see the Glossary. Whereas Table C-1 includes all persons, Figure C-1 and Table C-2 include only persons who are living with relatives. A small percentage of individuals living with relatives are in “non-family” households. An example might be two adult brothers living together. The percentage of individuals in these situations is not shown in the table and figure in this section. Consequently, the percentages in Table C-2 do not add to 100%.

Families

One in thirty families is a recent immigrant family

In Regina in 2001, there were 5,000 recent immigrants who landed in Canada between 1986 and 2001. A large majority of these immigrants—4,100 or 84%—were members of a nuclear family. In other words, they were husbands, wives, common-law partners, lone parents, or children. Almost all these recent immigrants lived in 1,800 recent immigrant families—that is, families in which either or both spouses or the lone parent are recent immigrants. Only 3% of families in Regina are recent immigrant families. In Canada as a whole, one in nine families is a recent immigrant family.

Most of the recent immigrant families consist of married or common-law couples, while only 8% are lone-parent families. Among Canadian-born families, 19% are single-parent families and 81% are married or common-law couples.

When families are grouped by the age of the oldest member, lone-parent families are more common among the Canadian-born for all age groups except seniors 65 years and over. In the 25-44 year age group, almost one-quarter of Canadian-born families is a lone-parent family, compared to only 6% of recent immigrant families.

Table C-3: Recent immigrant and Canadian-born families—family structure, by age of older spouse or lone parent, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born families Recent immigrant families
All families (including 15-24 years)
Couples with or without children 36,240 81% 1,660 92%
Lone-parent families 8,450 19% 140 8%
Total number of families 44,690 100% 1,800 100%
25-44 years
Couples with or without children 15,490 77% 940 94%
Lone-parent families 4,670 23% 60 6%
Total number of families 20,160 100% 1,000 100%
45-64 years
Couples with or without children 14,010 86% 650 93%
Lone-parent families 2,270 14% 60 9%
Total number of families 16,280 100% 700 100%
65 years and over
Couples with or without children 5,790 89% 90 90%
Lone-parent families 680 11% 10 10%
Total number of families 6,470 100% 100 100%

Note: For definitions of family and related concepts, see the Glossary. Since the 1996 Census there have been changes to the definition of family.

Recent immigrant families more likely to have children in the home

Recent immigrant and Canadian-born families differ in the proportion of families with children at home. Nearly three-quarters of recent immigrant families have at least one child of any age living at home. In comparison, almost two-thirds of Canadian-born families have children at home.

This difference occurs mainly among older families, when age of family is defined as the age of the older spouse or lone parent. In families where the older spouse or lone parent is 25 to 44 years of age, recent immigrant families in Regina are slightly less likely than Canadian-born families to have children at home—75% compared to 81%, respectively. However, in families where the older spouse or lone parent is 45 to 64 years of age, 73% of recent immigrant families and 62% of Canadian-born families have children in the home. In families where the older spouse or lone parent is 65 years of age or over, 53% of recent immigrant families have children in the home, compared to just 18% of Canadian-born families.

Figure C-2: Recent immigrant and Canadian-born families—never-married children living at home, by age of older spouse or lone parent, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

Figure C-2

The higher proportion of older recent immigrant families with children living at home could be due to a greater likelihood that older children stay longer in the parental home, as well as possible differences in the timing of childbirth and level of fertility. Some of the children in older immigrant families may be adults living with and possibly supporting one or two aging parents.

Older recent immigrant families have more children living at home

Recent immigrant families with children are more likely to have two or more children in the home than Canadian-born families with children. Seventy-one percent of recent immigrant families with children have two or more children, compared to 60% of Canadian-born families. The incidence of three or more children is also higher among recent immigrant families.

In families where the older spouse or lone parent is 25 to 44 years of age, there is little difference in the shares of Canadian-born and recent immigrant families with one, two, or three or more children. However, among families where the older spouse or lone parent is 45 years of age and over, recent immigrant families tend to have a larger number of children.

Table C-4: Recent immigrant and Canadian-born families—never-married children living at home, by age of older spouse or lone parent, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born families Recent immigrant families
All ages (including 15-24 years)
One child 11,700 41% 380 29%
Two children 11,430 40% 630 48%
Three or more children 5,640 20% 300 23%
25-44 years
One child 5,170 32% 210 28%
Two children 7,300 45% 340 46%
Three or more children 3,890 24% 200 26%
45-64 years
One child 4,700 47% 140 27%
Two children 3,750 37% 270 53%
Three or more children 1,640 16% 100 20%
65 years and over
One child 1,010 87% 10 20%
Two children 130 11% 30 60%
Three or more children 20 2% 10 20%

In one-third of recent immigrant families, one spouse was born in Canada

The majority of the 1,800 recent immigrant families consist of a recent immigrant husband married to or living common-law with a recent immigrant wife, with or without children. An additional 11% of families have a recent immigrant spouse and a spouse who immigrated earlier, before 1986. One-third of recent immigrant families in Regina consist of a recent immigrant paired with a Canadian-born spouse. In Canada as a whole, 15% of recent immigrant families consist of a recent immigrant with a Canadian-born spouse.

Figure C-3: Recent immigrant families—family structure showing immigrant status of spouses, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure C-3

Of the families of immigrants who landed before 1986, 53% consist of an immigrant paired with a Canadian-born spouse (not shown in Figure C-3). This proportion is significantly higher than for recent immigrant families and well above the Canadian average.

When recent immigrants enter into conjugal unions, they are very likely to do so as a legally married couple. In Regina, just 1% of recent immigrant couples live common-law, compared to 13% of Canadian-born couples.

Table C-5: Recent immigrant and Canadian-born families—couples in common-law relationships, by age of older spouse, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born families Recent immigrant families
All ages 4,630 13% 10 1%
15-24 years 690 73% 0 0%
25-44 years 2,780 18% 0 0%
45 years and over 1,160 6% 10 2%

The low incidence of common-law relationships is in part a result of immigration law, which, prior to the introduction of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) in June 2002, did not recognize common-law relationships.

Households

One in thirty households is a recent immigrant household

In 2001, there were 2,420 recent immigrant households—households in which at least one member 15 years of age or older was a recent immigrant. These made up 3% of the total number of households in Regina.

Almost 40% of recent immigrant households (920 households) have at least one member who immigrated after 1995. For one-half of these households, all members are very recent immigrants. The remaining 460 households are comprised of very recent immigrants living together with other persons. In 47% of these households, the other persons are immigrants who landed before 1996, in 43% they are persons born in Canada, and in 10% they are both immigrants who landed before 1996 and persons born in Canada. In Canada as a whole, very recent immigrants tend to live more with other immigrants and less with persons born in Canada.

Table C-6: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Number of
households
Share of
all households
Canadian-born 67,630 88%
Earlier immigrants 6,420 8%
Recent immigrants 2,420 3%
 1986-1995 immigrants 1,500 2%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 460 1%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 460 1%
All households 76,650 100%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Nearly 90% of households in Regina are comprised of only Canadian-born persons. Households that include one or more earlier immigrants but no recent immigrants account for 8% of households.

Recent immigrant households more likely to be larger than a nuclear family

A recent immigrant household is much more likely than a Canadian-born household to consist of one or more families. Four out of five recent immigrant households are family households, compared to just two out of three Canadian-born households.

One in three Canadian-born households is a non-family household, and most of these consist of a person living alone. Among more recent immigrant households, persons living alone are much rarer. Most households consist of a nuclear family—that is, a couple with or without children or a lone parent with one or more children. Immigrant households, except for households of only very recent immigrants, are somewhat more likely to consist of just a nuclear family than Canadian-born households.

A significant proportion of recent immigrant households consist of a nuclear family living with other persons. In most of these “expanded-family” households, the non-family person or persons are related to the family. Expanded-family households occur much less frequently among the Canadian-born.

Table C-7: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—household structure, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
    Family households Non-family households
Households All family house-holds Nuclear families Expanded families Multiple families Single person Multiple persons
             
Canadian-born 44,360 41,320 2,760 290 19,570 3,700
Earlier immigrants 4,790 4,460 270 70 1,390 240
Recent immigrants 1,910 1,590 250 70 410 110
 1986-1995 immigrants 1,240 1,040 180 30 220 50
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 400 290 70 40 0 50
 1996-2001 immigrants only 260 260 0 0 200 0
All households 51,130 47,430 3,280 420 21,420 4,110
 
Canadian-born 66% 61% 4% 0% 29% 5%
Earlier immigrants 75% 69% 4% 1% 22% 4%
Recent immigrants 79% 66% 10% 3% 17% 5%
 1986-1995 immigrants 83% 69% 12% 2% 15% 3%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 88% 64% 15% 9% 0% 11%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 56% 56% 0% 0% 43% 0%
All households 67% 62% 4% 1% 28% 5%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Households of recent immigrants are more likely than Canadian-born households to consist of two or more families. These families may be related to each other, as for example a married couple living with the family of one of their children. Multiple family households are most common among households combining very recent immigrants with other Canadians. Many recent immigrants clearly live in households that are different from the standard nuclear family.

Recent immigrant households tend to be large

Recent immigrant households are more likely to be larger in size than Canadian-born and earlier immigrant households. Six out of ten recent immigrant households have one to three persons in the household compared to almost 80% of Canadian-born households. The proportion of households with four or more members is much larger among recent immigrant households than among Canadian-born households.

Table C-8: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—household size, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Number of persons in household Total
Households 1 to 3 4 or 5 6 or more
Canadian-born 51,850 14,310 1,480 67,630
Earlier immigrants 4,880 1,390 150 6,420
Recent immigrants 1,410 870 140 2,410
 1986-1995 immigrants 750 650 100 1,490
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 310 110 40 450
 1996-2001 immigrants only 330 110 20 460
All households 58,290 16,590 1,780 76,650
  Number of persons in household Estimated
average size
Households 1 to 3 4 or 5 6 or more
Canadian-born 77% 21% 2% 2.5
Earlier immigrants 76% 22% 2% 2.6
Recent immigrants 58% 36% 6% 3.2
 1986-1995 immigrants 50% 44% 6% 3.4
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 69% 23% 8% 3.3
 1996-2001 immigrants only 71% 24% 4% 2.5
All households 76% 22% 2% 2.5

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary. Average size of household is estimated assuming an average of 4.5 for households with four or five members and an average of 7 for households with six or more members. For households with one, two or three members, the actual size of household was used in the calculation.

Most of the larger recent immigrant households have four or five members. Households where very recent immigrants live together with other Canadian-born are the most likely of all households to be quite large, with 8% having six or more members. The share of equally large households among Canadian-born households is only 2%.

More care of children

The proportion of recent immigrants 15 years of age or over reporting time spent on unpaid care of children is higher than the proportion of Canadian-born persons in the same category. On the other hand, a smaller share of recent immigrants report spending time on a regular basis looking after elderly persons in comparison to the Canadian-born. Very recent immigrants are less likely to spend time on care of children or care of elders than immigrants who landed during the 1986 to 1995 period.

These numbers reflect differences in family and household structure. Families with children are more numerous among recent immigrants.

Table C-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—reporting unpaid care of children or elders, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  Care of
  Children Elders
Women
Canadian-born 31,140 35% 15,460 17%
Immigrants 2,660 37% 1,350 19%
 Immigrated before 1986 1,580 34% 1,000 22%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 770 49% 280 17%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 310 32% 70 7%
Men
Canadian-born 23,260 27% 10,600 12%
Immigrants 2,400 35% 940 14%
 Immigrated before 1986 1,420 32% 700 16%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 750 47% 190 12%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 240 28% 60 7%
Total
Canadian-born 54,400 31% 26,060 15%
Immigrants 5,060 36% 2,290 16%
 Immigrated before 1986 3,000 33% 1,700 19%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,520 48% 460 15%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 540 30% 130 7%
Date Modified: