Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Regina—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower among very recent immigrants

Very recent immigrants are generally not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. The difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is twenty-two percentage points for women, and eleven percentage points for men.

Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is more like that of the Canadian-born. A pattern of adjustment and increasing involvement of immigrants in the Canadian labour market with longer stay is evident in all three age groups, for both men and women.

Men aged 25 to 44 years who immigrated before 1986 and also those who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period have labour force participation rates similar to Canadian-born men in the same age group. The labour force participation rates for women aged 25 to 44 years who immigrated before 1986 are similar to those of Canadian-born women in the same age group. This is not the case, however, for recent immigrant women 25 to 44 years of age who landed five to fifteen years before the census during the 1986-1995 period—the labour force participation rates for these women remain well below the participation rates of Canadian-born women in this age group.

Labour force participation rates were not much different in 2001 from those in 1996. Very recent immigrants were somewhat more active in 2001 than their counterparts five years earlier.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,210 23,300 14,700 48,200
Immigrants 300 1,560 1,630 3,490
 Immigrated before 1986 70 730 1,340 2,130
 Immigrated 1986-1995 170 550 230 940
 Immigrated 1996-2001 70 300 60 420
Men
Canadian-born 10,390 23,510 14,730 48,630
Immigrants 390 1,690 2,090 4,160
 Immigrated before 1986 100 780 1,660 2,540
 Immigrated 1986-1995 220 630 340 1,180
 Immigrated 1996-2001 70 290 100 450
Total
Canadian-born 20,600 46,810 29,430 96,840
Immigrants 690 3,250 3,720 7,650
 Immigrated before 1986 170 1,500 3,000 4,670
 Immigrated 1986-1995 380 1,160 570 2,110
 Immigrated 1996-2001 130 590 150 870

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 71% 86% 75% 79% 48,200
Immigrants 62% 78% 67% 71% 3,490
 Immigrated before 1986 74% 90% 69% 75% 2,130
 Immigrated 1986-1995 66% 77% 60% 70% 940
 Immigrated 1996-2001 43% 60% 67% 57% 420
Men
Canadian-born 73% 93% 81% 84% 48,630
Immigrants 66% 89% 83% 83% 4,160
 Immigrated before 1986 77% 95% 82% 85% 2,540
 Immigrated 1986-1995 66% 90% 85% 83% 1,180
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50% 76% 90% 73% 450
Total
Canadian-born 72% 89% 78% 82% 96,840
Immigrants 64% 83% 75% 77% 7,650
 Immigrated before 1986 77% 93% 76% 81% 4,670
 Immigrated 1986-1995 66% 83% 72% 76% 2,110
 Immigrated 1996-2001 46% 67% 77% 64% 870

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-1, women

Figure D-1, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants, with only a few exceptions.

For most education levels there is a common pattern of relatively low participation rates for very recent immigrants, and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born with longer stay. However, there are some exceptions to this pattern. For example, men who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period and hold a college or trade diploma participate at a slightly higher rate than immigrant men with a college or trade diploma who landed before 1986.

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-2, women

Figure D-2, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area 2001 (number)
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree
Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,340 13,180 16,100 8,600 48,200
Immigrants 650 740 1,140 980 3,490
 Immigrated before 1986 360 430 760 580 2,130
 Immigrated 1986-1995 240 220 240 240 940
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50 80 140 160 420
Men
Canadian-born 12,780 13,060 14,100 8,700 48,630
Immigrants 750 980 1,180 1,270 4,160
 Immigrated before 1986 430 500 780 810 2,540
 Immigrated 1986-1995 210 370 320 270 1,180
 Immigrated 1996-2001 70 110 70 190 450
Total
Canadian-born 23,120 26,240 30,190 17,300 96,840
Immigrants 1,390 1,720 2,310 2,230 7,650
 Immigrated before 1986 810 940 1,570 1,390 4,670
 Immigrated 1986-1995 470 600 550 510 2,110
 Immigrated 1996-2001 140 190 200 350 870

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area 2001
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 62% 82% 87% 89% 79%
Immigrants 57% 68% 77% 82% 71%
 Immigrated before 1986 58% 71% 81% 85% 75%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 60% 67% 72% 81% 70%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 33% 48% 66% 74% 57%
Men
Canadian-born 71% 89% 91% 92% 84%
Immigrants 71% 86% 86% 88% 83%
 Immigrated before 1986 73% 88% 85% 89% 85%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 60% 89% 89% 82% 83%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 44% 66% 74% 86% 73%
Total
Canadian-born 67% 85% 89% 91% 82%
Immigrants 63% 77% 81% 85% 77%
 Immigrated before 1986 67% 81% 84% 88% 81%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 66% 80% 80% 84% 76%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 47% 57% 67% 78% 64%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Unemployment among recent immigrants similar to Canadian-born

Earlier immigrants who landed before 1986—both men and women—have unemployment rates below those of the Canadian-born and lower than those of recent immigrants living in Regina in 2001. In comparison, recent immigrants who landed during the fifteen years between 1986 and 2001 have unemployment rates similar to the Canadian-born. Recent immigrant men are more likely to experience unemployment than earlier immigrant men who have been in Canada for more than fifteen years. Recent immigrant women, however, have low unemployment rates similar to those of earlier immigrant men but below those of the Canadian-born—both men and women. The unemployment rate declined for almost all groups of immigrants and the Canadian-born since 1996.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Unemployment
rate
Number of persons unemployed
Women
Canadian-born 5% 2,450
Immigrants 4% 130
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 80
 Immigrated 1986-2001 4% 60
Men
Canadian-born 7% 3,510
Immigrants 6% 240
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 110
 Immigrated 1986-2001 8% 130
Total
Canadian-born 6% 5,980
Immigrants 5% 360
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 190
 Immigrated 1986-2001 6% 190

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Share of men and women with jobs increases with length of stay

One-half of very recent immigrant women aged 15 to 64 years are employed compared to three-quarters of Canadian-born women. For men the difference is smaller—just over six in ten very recent immigrants are employed in comparison to almost four out of five Canadian-born men. These differences in employment rates reflect differences in labour force participation rates.

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age— age and gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 9,150 22,320 14,280 45,750
Immigrants 290 1,500 1,580 3,360
 Immigrated before 1986 - 710 1,290 2,070
 Immigrated 1986-1995 160 530 220 900
 Immigrated 1996-2001 70 270 60 390
Men
Canadian-born 8,860 22,160 14,100 45,110
Immigrants 360 1,600 1,960 3,920
 Immigrated before 1986 - 770 1,570 2,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 210 590 330 1,120
 Immigrated 1996-2001 70 250 70 380
Total
Canadian-born 18,010 44,480 28,380 90,860
Immigrants 650 3,090 3,540 7,280
 Immigrated before 1986 170 1,480 2,870 4,510
 Immigrated 1986-1995 360 1,110 540 2,010
 Immigrated 1996-2001 130 510 130 770

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Among immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is generally more common than among more recent immigrants. Immigrants who have lived in Canada for 15 years or more have employment rates comparable to the Canadian-born, and in the case of men and women aged 25 to 44 years have surpassed the employment levels of the Canadian-born. Older immigrant men 45 years of age and over who landed five to fifteen years before the census tend to participate at a comparatively high rate, while women of the corresponding immigrant cohort and age group tend to participate at a lower rate.

In 2001, the employment rate was significantly higher among some of the younger and older groups of recent immigrants than in 1996 but among recent immigrants of prime working age it was lower.

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 64% 82% 73% 75% 45,750
Immigrants 60% 75% 65% 69% 3,360
 Immigrated before 1986 - 88% 66% 73% 2,070
 Immigrated 1986-1995 62% 74% 57% 67% 900
 Immigrated 1996-2001 43% 54% 67% 53% 390
Men
Canadian-born 62% 87% 78% 78% 45,110
Immigrants 62% 84% 78% 79% 3,920
 Immigrated before 1986 - 93% 78% 82% 2,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 63% 85% 82% 79% 1,120
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50% 64% 67% 62% 380
Total
Canadian-born 63% 85% 75% 77% 90,860
Immigrants 60% 79% 72% 74% 7,280
 Immigrated before 1986 75% 91% 73% 78% 4,510
 Immigrated 1986-1995 63% 79% 69% 73% 2,010
 Immigrated 1996-2001 44% 59% 67% 57% 770

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs more common for very recent immigrants

The proportion of employed immigrants who work part-time decreases as the length of stay in Canada increases. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to work part time, whether they are immigrants or Canadian-born.

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  Share of
employed persons
Number of
persons
Women
Canadian-born 31% 15,340
Immigrants 29% 1,070
 Immigrated before 1986 22% 500
 Immigrated 1986-1995 34% 350
 Immigrated 1996-1999 49% 170
Men
Canadian-born 17% 8,220
Immigrants 15% 660
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 290
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20% 250
 Immigrated 1996-1999 25% 80
Total
Canadian-born 24% 23,560
Immigrants 22% 1,730
 Immigrated before 1986 16% 790
 Immigrated 1986-1995 27% 600
 Immigrated 1996-1999 37% 250

Note: Table D-8 does not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Many recent immigrants in sales and services, health and science occupations

Employed very recent immigrants who have been in the country for up to 5 years are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in sales and services occupations and health and science occupations. Almost two-fifths of very recent immigrants who have been in the country for up to 5 years are employed in sales and service jobs compared to one-fifth of the Canadian-born. The differences are greater for women than for men. However, slightly more than one-quarter of immigrants who have been in Canada 15 years or more have jobs in management and social occupations.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Processing Admin-
istrative
Mana-
gement and social sciences
Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 7,440 440 13,620 8,950 620 5,550 36,600
Immigrants 980 50 720 700 50 600 3,100
 Immigrated
 before 1986
550 30 520 540 30 320 2,000
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
290 0 130 130 0 210 700
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
140 0 60 50 0 70 300
Men
Canadian-born 6,050 2,560 4,450 9,190 9,260 4,760 36,300
Immigrants 860 170 290 910 650 680 3,600
 Immigrated
 before 1986
490 100 240 660 440 430 2,300
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
280 70 40 180 170 190 900
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
90 10 20 70 40 90 300
Total
Canadian-born 13,490 3,000 18,070 18,140 9,880 10,310 72,900
Immigrants 1,840 220 1,010 1,610 700 1,270 6,600
 Immigrated
 before 1986
1,050 130 760 1,190 480 760 4,300
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
560 90 170 300 180 370 1,700
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
240 10 70 120 40 160 600
 
Women
Canadian-born 20% 1% 37% 24% 2% 15% 100%
Immigrants 32% 1% 23% 23% 1% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
27% 2% 26% 27% 1% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
38% 0% 17% 17% 0% 28% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
43% 0% 18% 14% 0% 20% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 17% 7% 12% 25% 26% 13% 100%
Immigrants 24% 5% 8% 26% 18% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
21% 4% 10% 28% 19% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
30% 7% 4% 19% 19% 20% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
29% 3% 6% 21% 13% 29% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 19% 4% 25% 25% 14% 14% 100%
Immigrants 28% 3% 15% 24% 11% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
24% 3% 18% 27% 11% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
34% 5% 10% 18% 11% 22% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
38% 2% 11% 19% 6% 24% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-9 to D-12 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age old. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and are less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation categories are defined in the Glossary.

In 2001, 30% of very recent immigrant men are employed in health and science occupations and also in sales and services occupations and a much lower share (13%) in trades and transport occupations. In 1996, the share of immigrant men who landed in the five years prior to the census who were employed in health and science occupations was lower and the share in sales and services occupations far more common

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-3, women

Figure D-3, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Many recent immigrants in hospitality and other services and the public sector

In Regina, a much larger proportion of the jobs of recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 than of the Canadian-born of the same age work in the hospitality and other services sector. The Canadian-born, however, are more likely to work in the construction and transportation sector. One-third of the Canadian-born and a slightly higher proportion of recent immigrants work in the public sector.

Compared to 1996, very recent immigrant men have found more jobs in business services, and women in the public sector, while both men and women have a smaller presence in manufacturing, hospitality and other services. This may reflect changes in job availability, due to the growth of the Regina economy since 1996.

In 2001, 30% of very recent immigrant men are employed in health and science occupations and also in sales and services occupations and a much lower share (13%) in trades and transport occupations. In 1996, the share of immigrant men who landed in the five years prior to the census who were employed in health and science occupations was lower and the share in sales and services occupations far more common

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Con-
struction and Trans-
portation
Trade Business services Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,230 2,830 4,990 6,620 16,490 4,450 36,600
Immigrants 90 130 330 300 1,590 680 3,100
 Immigrated
 before 1986
70 80 200 190 1,080 370 2,000
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
10 10 100 70 360 200 800
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
10 0 40 40 140 110 300
Men
Canadian-born 4,550 8,870 6,880 5,280 7,460 3,250 36,300
Immigrants 400 550 510 440 950 710 3,600
 Immigrated
 before 1986
250 430 350 310 630 400 2,300
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
140 90 130 70 230 230 900
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
30 20 40 70 80 90 300
Total
Canadian-born 5,760 11,690 11,860 11,910 23,940 7,690 72,900
Immigrants 480 670 830 740 2,520 1,380 6,600
 Immigrated
 before 1986
310 520 540 500 1,720 770 4,300
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
150 140 230 140 590 430 1,700
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
40 20 70 90 230 200 600
 
Women
Canadian-born 3% 8% 14% 18% 45% 12% 100%
Immigrants 3% 4% 11% 10% 52% 22% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
3% 4% 10% 9% 54% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
1% 1% 13% 9% 47% 27% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
3% 0% 11% 12% 43% 32% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 13% 24% 19% 15% 21% 9% 100%
Immigrants 11% 15% 14% 12% 27% 20% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
11% 18% 15% 13% 27% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
15% 10% 14% 7% 25% 25% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
8% 6% 11% 22% 24% 29% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 16% 16% 16% 33% 11% 100%
Immigrants 7% 10% 12% 11% 38% 21% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
7% 12% 12% 12% 40% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
9% 8% 14% 8% 35% 26% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
5% 3% 10% 14% 35% 30% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-9 to D-12 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-4, women

Figure D-4, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Very recent immigrant men work in higher skill jobs

A larger share of very recent immigrant men—those who immigrated between 1996 and 2001—work in jobs that require a higher level of skills in comparison to Canadian-born men. One-third of Canadian-born men work in jobs that require a university education compared to 44% of very recent immigrant men and 40% of men who immigrated before 1986. However, this is not the case for women. Only 20% of immigrant women who landed after 1995 are employed in jobs that require a university education compared to one-third of Canadian-born women. Twenty percent of recent immigrants work in jobs that require no formal education compared to 8% of the Canadian-born.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 2,860 12,410 9,680 11,650 36,590
Immigrants 440 1,040 670 930 3,080
 Immigrated before 1986 230 670 490 640 2,000
 Immigrated 1986-1995 150 270 110 230 750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 60 110 80 70 330
Men
Canadian-born 3,280 8,650 12,180 12,150 36,260
Immigrants 440 610 1,090 1,430 3,560
 Immigrated before 1986 190 420 710 1,020 2,330
 Immigrated 1986-1995 210 160 290 270 910
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50 30 100 140 320
Total
Canadian-born 6,130 21,070 21,860 23,800 72,860
Immigrants 880 1,640 1,760 2,360 6,640
 Immigrated before 1986 400 1,080 1,190 1,670 4,340
 Immigrated 1986-1995 360 420 400 500 1,660
 Immigrated 1996-2001 110 150 180 210 650
 
Women
Canadian-born 8% 34% 26% 32% 100%
Immigrants 14% 34% 22% 30% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 33% 24% 32% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20% 36% 14% 30% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 18% 34% 25% 20% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 9% 24% 34% 34% 100%
Immigrants 12% 17% 31% 40% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 8% 18% 30% 44% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 23% 17% 32% 29% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16% 9% 30% 44% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 29% 30% 33% 100%
Immigrants 13% 25% 26% 36% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 25% 27% 38% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 21% 25% 24% 30% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 17% 22% 27% 33% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-9to D-12 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The information presented in Table D-11 does not directly indicate whether skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels required for the jobs of employed recent immigrants and the Canadian-born with their level of education. This is presented in Table D-12 for persons holding a university degree.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-5, women

Figure D-5, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Education of recent immigrant women not fully utilized

Recent immigrants with a university degree are not as likely to work in jobs that require a university education as the Canadian-born. One-half of recent immigrant women with a university degree and nearly two-thirds of earlier immigrant women with a university degree work in a job requiring a university education compared to 70% of Canadian-born women with a university degree. Two-thirds of recent immigrant men with a university degree have a job requiring a university education in comparison to approximately three-quarters of Canadian-born men with a university degree. Almost 80% of earlier immigrant men with a university degree are employed in jobs requiring a university education.

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 80 920 1,150 5,260 7,410
Immigrants 40 220 130 510 890
 Immigrated before 1986 10 100 110 340 540
 Immigrated 1986-2001 20 120 30 160 340
Men
Canadian-born 190 620 1,340 5,860 8,000
Immigrants 70 80 170 880 1,190
 Immigrated before 1986 30 70 80 610 780
 Immigrated 1986-2001 60 20 70 270 410
Total
Canadian-born 270 1,540 2,480 11,120 15,400
Immigrants 110 290 290 1,380 2,080
 Immigrated before 1986 40 160 220 950 1,340
 Immigrated 1986-2001 70 150 90 430 730
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 12% 16% 71% 100%
Immigrants 4% 24% 14% 58% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 18% 20% 63% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 6% 36% 7% 48% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 2% 8% 17% 73% 100%
Immigrants 6% 6% 14% 74% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 8% 10% 78% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 15% 5% 17% 65% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 2% 10% 16% 72% 100%
Immigrants 5% 14% 14% 67% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 12% 16% 71% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 10% 20% 12% 59% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-9 to D-12 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born —25 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates with jobs requiring university education, by gender, Regina Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

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