Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Saskatoon—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower among very recent immigrants

Very recent immigrants are generally not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. The difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is fifteen percentage points for women, and thirteen percentage points for men.

Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is more like that of the Canadian-born. A pattern of adjustment and increasing involvement of immigrants in the Canadian labour market with longer stay is evident in all three age groups, for both men and women. Both men and women aged 45 to 64 years who landed in Canada during the 1986 to 1995 period have participation rates higher than earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 12,450 26,270 15,400 54,110
Immigrants 350 1,900 1,930 4,180
 Immigrated before 1986 100 820 1,460 2,370
 Immigrated 1986-1995 190 610 370 1,170
 Immigrated 1996-2001 70 480 100 650
Men
Canadian-born 11,880 27,550 17,060 56,480
Immigrants 450 2,340 2,340 5,130
 Immigrated before 1986 170 1,040 1,900 3,110
 Immigrated 1986-1995 190 580 360 1,120
 Immigrated 1996-2001 100 730 90 920
Total
Canadian-born 24,320 53,820 32,450 110,590
Immigrants 810 4,240 4,270 9,320
 Immigrated before 1986 270 1,860 3,350 5,470
 Immigrated 1986-1995 370 1,190 730 2,290
 Immigrated 1996-2001 170 1,200 200 1,570

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 69% 83% 72% 76% 54,110
Immigrants 53% 76% 70% 71% 4,180
 Immigrated before 1986 76% 86% 67% 73% 2,370
 Immigrated 1986-1995 51% 75% 85% 72% 1,170
 Immigrated 1996-2001 44% 65% 63% 61% 650
Men
Canadian-born 71% 93% 84% 85% 56,480
Immigrants 60% 89% 84% 83% 5,130
 Immigrated before 1986 89% 95% 84% 88% 3,110
 Immigrated 1986-1995 63% 89% 88% 83% 1,120
 Immigrated 1996-2001 37% 83% 69% 72% 920
Total
Canadian-born 70% 87% 78% 80% 110,590
Immigrants 57% 83% 77% 77% 9,320
 Immigrated before 1986 84% 90% 76% 81% 5,470
 Immigrated 1986-1995 55% 81% 87% 77% 2,290
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40% 75% 67% 67% 1,570

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-1, women

Figure D-1, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants, with only a few exceptions.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area 2001 (number)
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,240 13,070 19,590 11,240 54,110
Immigrants 720 880 1,160 1,410 4,180
 Immigrated before 1986 430 470 770 700 2,370
 Immigrated 1986-1995 170 330 280 410 1,170
 Immigrated 1996-2001 100 100 140 310 650
Men
Canadian-born 14,530 14,750 17,390 9,800 56,480
Immigrants 960 840 1,380 1,970 5,130
 Immigrated before 1986 590 520 970 1,050 3,110
 Immigrated 1986-1995 230 240 230 430 1,120
 Immigrated 1996-2001 180 100 170 490 920
Total
Canadian-born 24,760 27,810 36,970 21,050 110,590
Immigrants 1,680 1,720 2,540 3,380 9,320
 Immigrated before 1986 1,000 980 1,720 1,750 5,470
 Immigrated 1986-1995 380 550 510 830 2,290
 Immigrated 1996-2001 270 190 300 790 1,570

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

For most education levels there is a common pattern of relatively low participation rates for very recent immigrants, and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born with longer stay. However, there are some exceptions to this pattern. Women who immigrated during the 1986 to 1995 period and hold a post-secondary diploma or degree participate at a slightly higher rate than earlier immigrant women who landed before 1986.

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates by level of education and gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area 2001
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 56% 79% 84% 87% 76%
Immigrants 54% 71% 74% 79% 71%
 Immigrated before 1986 57% 76% 78% 79% 73%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 45% 75% 82% 84% 72%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50% 51% 58% 71% 61%
Men
Canadian-born 70% 90% 93% 91% 85%
Immigrants 69% 82% 90% 88% 83%
 Immigrated before 1986 81% 92% 91% 89% 88%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 68% 87% 90% 88% 83%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 57% 51% 83% 84% 72%
Total
Canadian-born 63% 85% 88% 88% 80%
Immigrants 62% 76% 82% 84% 77%
 Immigrated before 1986 66% 82% 84% 85% 81%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 51% 78% 86% 86% 77%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 54% 49% 67% 79% 67%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-2, women

Figure D-2, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Unemployment higher for recent immigrants

Recent immigrants are more likely to experience unemployment than earlier immigrants who have been in the country for over fifteen years. Earlier immigrants, both men and women, have lower unemployment rates than the Canadian-born. The unemployment rate declined for almost all groups of immigrants and the Canadian-born since 1996.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Unemployment rate Number of persons unemployed
Women
Canadian-born 6% 3,420
Immigrants 7% 290
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 100
 Immigrated 1986-2001 10% 190
Men
Canadian-born 7% 4,120
Immigrants 7% 340
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 160
 Immigrated 1986-2001 9% 190
Total
Canadian-born 7% 7,540
Immigrants 7% 620
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 270
 Immigrated 1986-2001 10% 370

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Share of men and women with jobs higher with longer stay

Seven in ten Canadian-born women aged 15 to 64 are employed compared to one-half of very recent immigrant women. For men the difference is smaller—over three-quarters of Canadian-born men are employed in comparison to two-thirds of very recent immigrant men. These differences in employment rates reflect differences in labour force participation rates.

Among immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is generally more common than among more recent immigrants. With the exception of women 45 to 64 years of age who landed before 1986, earlier immigrants who have lived in the country for 15 years or more have employment rates comparable to or slightly higher than the Canadian-born

In 2001, the employment rate was several percentage points higher for women than five years earlier, while for men it was about the same. The largest gains were made by women 45 to 64 years old who immigrated less than 15 years before the census.

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,940 24,760 15,000 50,690
Immigrants 300 1,780 1,820 3,900
 Immigrated before 1986 - 790 1,400 2,250
 Immigrated 1986-1995 190 570 340 1,090
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50 420 80 550
Men
Canadian-born 10,330 25,620 16,400 52,350
Immigrants 410 2,190 2,210 4,800
 Immigrated before 1986 - 990 1,830 2,950
 Immigrated 1986-1995 180 550 320 1,040
 Immigrated 1996-2001 90 660 80 820
Total
Canadian-born 21,270 50,380 31,400 103,040
Immigrants 710 3,970 4,020 8,700
 Immigrated before 1986 220 1,780 3,220 5,210
 Immigrated 1986-1995 360 1,130 650 2,130
 Immigrated 1996-2001 140 1,070 160 1,360

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 61% 78% 70% 71% 50,690
Immigrants 45% 71% 66% 66% 3,900
 Immigrated before 1986 - 83% 64% 69% 2,250
 Immigrated 1986-1995 49% 70% 77% 67% 1,090
 Immigrated 1996-2001 28% 57% 50% 51% 550
Men
Canadian-born 62% 86% 81% 78% 52,350
Immigrants 54% 83% 79% 78% 4,800
 Immigrated before 1986 - 90% 81% 83% 2,950
 Immigrated 1986-1995 59% 84% 78% 77% 1,040
 Immigrated 1996-2001 33% 75% 58% 65% 820
Total
Canadian-born 61% 82% 76% 75% 103,040
Immigrants 50% 77% 72% 72% 8,700
 Immigrated before 1986 68% 87% 73% 77% 5,210
 Immigrated 1986-1995 54% 77% 77% 72% 2,130
 Immigrated 1996-2001 32% 66% 53% 58% 1,360

Note: Tables D-1 to D-7 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs more common for very recent immigrants

The proportion of employed immigrants who work part-time decreases as the length of stay in Canada increases. Women are twice as likely as men to work part time, whether they are immigrants or Canadian-born. Very recent immigrants in Saskatoon—both men and women—have seen a rise in part-time work compared to 1995. On the other hand, earlier immigrant and Canadian-born women have seen a decline in part-time work.

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  Share of
employed persons
Number of
persons
Women
Canadian-born 34% 19,320
Immigrants 28% 1,180
 Immigrated before 1986 25% 630
 Immigrated 1986-1995 29% 350
 Immigrated 1996-1999 39% 200
Men
Canadian-born 15% 8,570
Immigrants 14% 710
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 400
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15% 170
 Immigrated 1996-1999 20% 150
Total
Canadian-born 24% 27,880
Immigrants 21% 1,900
 Immigrated before 1986 18% 1,020
 Immigrated 1986-1995 23% 530
 Immigrated 1996-1999 29% 360

Note: Table D-8 does not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Many recent immigrants in health and science occupations

Employed recent immigrants are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in health and science occupations, and in management and social occupations. More than one-quarter of very recent immigrants who have been in the country for up to five years are employed in health and science jobs compared to 14% of the Canadian-born. One-quarter of immigrants who landed during the 1986-1995 period are employed in sales and services occupations. In 2001, the distribution of occupations of very recent immigrants in Saskatoon is somewhat different from that of those who preceded them. The share of sales and services jobs is lower and employment in health and science occupations is somewhat higher.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Processing Admin-
istrative
Mana-
gement and social sciences
Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 9,610 1,340 11,650 10,090 700 6,390 39,800
Immigrants 980 210 530 1,070 130 680 3,600
 Immigrated
 before 1986
550 100 400 680 100 370 2,200
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
300 80 70 280 30 180 900
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
140 30 70 130 10 130 500
Men
Canadian-born 7,210 4,330 3,750 10,020 11,840 4,900 42,000
Immigrants 750 390 230 1,220 980 850 4,400
 Immigrated
 before 1986
470 220 200 780 720 430 2,800
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
180 90 10 220 150 230 900
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
90 80 20 230 120 190 700
Total
Canadian-born 16,820 5,660 15,400 20,110 12,540 11,270 81,800
Immigrants 1,730 610 750 2,290 1,110 1,520 8,000
 Immigrated
 before 1986
1,030 320 590 1,440 820 800 5,000
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
460 170 80 490 170 420 1,800
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
230 120 80 360 140 330 1,200
 
Women
Canadian-born 24% 3% 29% 25% 2% 16% 100%
Immigrants 27% 6% 15% 30% 4% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
25% 4% 18% 31% 4% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
33% 9% 7% 31% 3% 20% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
28% 6% 13% 25% 2% 26% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 17% 10% 9% 24% 28% 12% 100%
Immigrants 17% 9% 5% 28% 22% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
17% 8% 7% 28% 25% 15% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
21% 10% 1% 26% 17% 27% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
12% 11% 2% 32% 16% 26% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 21% 7% 19% 25% 15% 14% 100%
Immigrants 22% 8% 9% 29% 14% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
21% 6% 12% 29% 16% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
26% 9% 5% 27% 10% 24% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
18% 9% 6% 29% 11% 27% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-9 to D-12 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and are less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation categories are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-3, women

Figure D-3, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Many recent immigrants in hospitality and other services and the public sector

In Saskatoon, a much larger proportion of the jobs of recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 than of the Canadian-born of the same age are in the hospitality and other services sector. The Canadian-born, however, are more likely to work in the trade sector and in the construction and transportation sector. One-third of the Canadian-born and a slightly higher proportion of recent immigrants work in the public sector.

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Con-
struction and Trans-
portation
Trade Business services Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 2,950 2,630 5,630 4,840 18,390 5,330 39,800
Immigrants 390 100 420 360 1,560 780 3,600
 Immigrated
 before 1986
230 60 320 210 960 390 2,200
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
150 20 70 80 380 230 900
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
30 10 40 40 210 160 500
Men
Canadian-born 8,580 9,600 7,870 4,740 7,840 3,420 42,000
Immigrants 1,000 510 540 450 1,250 650 4,400
 Immigrated
 before 1986
660 340 400 260 750 380 2,800
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
180 60 70 110 300 140 900
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
160 70 60 90 230 120 700
Total
Canadian-born 11,510 12,220 13,510 9,590 26,220 8,740 81,800
Immigrants 1,390 610 960 800 2,820 1,430 8,000
 Immigrated
 before 1986
880 440 740 490 1,680 790 5,000
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
310 100 130 200 690 380 1,800
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
230 80 100 120 460 260 1,200
 
Women
Canadian-born 7% 7% 14% 12% 46% 13% 100%
Immigrants 11% 3% 12% 10% 43% 22% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
10% 3% 14% 10% 43% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
16% 2% 7% 9% 42% 26% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
6% 2% 7% 8% 42% 31% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 20% 23% 19% 11% 19% 8% 100%
Immigrants 23% 12% 12% 10% 28% 15% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
23% 12% 14% 9% 27% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
20% 6% 8% 12% 35% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
22% 10% 8% 12% 31% 16% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 14% 15% 17% 12% 32% 11% 100%
Immigrants 17% 8% 12% 10% 35% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
18% 9% 15% 10% 34% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
17% 5% 7% 11% 39% 21% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
18% 7% 8% 10% 37% 21% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-9 to D-12 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Compared to 1996, a greater proportion of men have found employment in the business services sector, and very recent immigrant women in the public sector. Very recent immigrants—both men and women—have a smaller presence in the manufacturing sector.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-4, women

Figure D-4, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Skill requirements of jobs of very recent immigrants higher

A larger share of recent immigrants—those who immigrated between 1986 and 2001—work in jobs that require a higher level of skills in comparison to the Canadian-born. Approximately one-third of Canadian-born men work in jobs that require a university education compared to 45% of very recent immigrant men and 40% of men who immigrated between 1986 and 1995. A similar trend is observed for women. Almost 40% of immigrant women who landed after 1985 are employed in jobs that require a university education compared to 30% of Canadian-born women. Fifteen percent of recent immigrants work in jobs that require no formal education compared to 9% of the Canadian-born.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,640 12,830 11,360 11,930 39,750
Immigrants 490 870 930 1,310 3,600
 Immigrated before 1986 230 570 610 810 2,180
 Immigrated 1986-1995 180 180 220 340 900
 Immigrated 1996-2001 90 140 110 180 500
Men
Canadian-born 3,600 11,290 14,150 12,970 42,010
Immigrants 500 800 1,350 1,760 4,390
 Immigrated before 1986 290 550 910 1,080 2,810
 Immigrated 1986-1995 130 130 260 350 870
 Immigrated 1996-2001 70 130 190 330 720
Total
Canadian-born 7,240 24,120 25,510 24,910 81,770
Immigrants 980 1,670 2,290 3,080 7,990
 Immigrated before 1986 510 1,100 1,500 1,890 5,000
 Immigrated 1986-1995 300 310 480 680 1,770
 Immigrated 1996-2001 160 260 310 510 1,230
 
Women
Canadian-born 9% 32% 29% 30% 100%
Immigrants 13% 24% 26% 36% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 10% 26% 28% 37% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19% 20% 24% 38% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 18% 27% 22% 36% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 9% 27% 34% 31% 100%
Immigrants 11% 18% 31% 40% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 10% 19% 32% 38% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15% 15% 30% 40% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 18% 26% 45% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 9% 29% 31% 30% 100%
Immigrants 12% 21% 29% 39% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 10% 22% 30% 38% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 17% 18% 27% 38% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 21% 25% 41% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-9 to D-12 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The information presented in Table D-11 does not directly indicate whether the skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels required for the jobs of employed recent immigrants and the Canadian-born with their level of education. This is done in Table D-12 for persons holding a university degree.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-5, women

Figure D-5, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Skills of university graduates utilized

Recent immigrants with a university degree are as likely to work in jobs that require a university education as the Canadian-born with similar educational qualifications. A slightly higher proportion of earlier immigrants—who landed before 1986—work in jobs that utilize their education in comparison to the Canadian-born with a university degree. Sixty-two percent of recent immigrant women with a university degree and almost 70% of earlier immigrant women with a university degree work in a job requiring a university education compared to two-thirds of Canadian-born women with a university degree. Approximately 70% of recent immigrant men with a university degree have a job requiring a university education in comparison to 73% of Canadian-born men with a university degree. Seventy-seven percent of earlier immigrant men with a university degree are employed in jobs requiring a university education.

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 140 1,240 1,770 6,330 9,460
Immigrants 40 160 250 870 1,300
 Immigrated before 1986 30 60 120 460 670
 Immigrated 1986-2001 10 120 130 400 650
Men
Canadian-born 220 730 1,430 6,370 8,740
Immigrants 30 160 310 1,360 1,850
 Immigrated before 1986 10 90 130 770 1,000
 Immigrated 1986-2001 30 90 160 590 860
Total
Canadian-born 370 1,970 3,200 12,700 18,210
Immigrants 70 310 540 2,220 3,150
 Immigrated before 1986 30 130 250 1,240 1,650
 Immigrated 1986-2001 40 180 300 990 1,490
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 13% 19% 67% 100%
Immigrants 3% 12% 19% 67% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 8% 17% 69% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 2% 18% 20% 62% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 3% 8% 16% 73% 100%
Immigrants 2% 9% 16% 74% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 9% 13% 77% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 4% 11% 19% 69% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 2% 11% 18% 70% 100%
Immigrants 2% 10% 17% 71% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 8% 15% 75% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-2001 2% 12% 20% 66% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-9 to D-12 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates with jobs requiring university education, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

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