Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Saskatoon—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part E: Income

Sources and level of income

Sources of income vary by time in Canada

Seventy percent of Canadian-born women and 80% of Canadian-born men have earnings from employment in the year 2000. A slightly smaller share of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born has income from employment. For immigrants who landed before 1986, the proportion with earnings is lower because they tend to be older and many are retired. The relatively low share of very recent immigrants with employment income reflects lower participation in the workforce. The share of persons with employment income was higher in year 2000 than in 1995, except for immigrant men who had landed in Canada during the 1986-1995 period. The largest increase was 11 percentage points for very recent immigrant women, while other groups reported small changes.

Table E-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—sources of income, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  No income Employment income Other private income Government transfers Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,780 58,300 28,810 58,160 83,370
Immigrants 290 4,440 3,100 5,710 7,660
 Immigrated before 1986 90 2,700 2,550 3,880 5,110
 Immigrated 1986-1995 110 1,210 370 1,260 1,760
 Immigrated 1996-1999 100 540 190 580 790
Men
Canadian-born 2,900 60,040 21,990 46,240 75,510
Immigrants 170 5,310 2,750 5,100 7,490
 Immigrated before 1986 20 3,520 2,260 3,620 5,140
 Immigrated 1986-1995 110 1,090 290 850 1,440
 Immigrated 1996-1999 50 700 200 630 920
Total
Canadian-born 6,680 118,340 50,810 104,400 158,870
Immigrants 470 9,770 5,840 10,800 15,150
 Immigrated before 1986 110 6,230 4,800 7,490 10,250
 Immigrated 1986-1995 220 2,310 660 2,110 3,200
 Immigrated 1996-1999 150 1,230 380 1,210 1,700
 
Women
Canadian-born 5% 70% 35% 70% 100%
Immigrants 4% 58% 40% 75% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 53% 50% 76% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 69% 21% 71% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 12% 68% 23% 73% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 4% 80% 29% 61% 100%
Immigrants 2% 71% 37% 68% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 69% 44% 70% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 76% 20% 59% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 5% 76% 22% 69% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 4% 74% 32% 66% 100%
Immigrants 3% 64% 39% 71% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 61% 47% 73% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 72% 21% 66% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 9% 72% 22% 71% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. A person may have income from one, two or all three sources. The three sources are defined in the Glossary.

The proportion of recent immigrant women with no income is higher than that of the Canadian-born. The proportion of immigrant women who do not have income decreases significantly with length of stay in Canada, and ultimately falls below that of the Canadian-born. Absence of income among women was less common in 2000 than in 1995, as the incidence of zero income dropped by 6 percentage points for recent immigrant cohorts. Among men there was little change in the share with zero income in year 2000 in comparison to 1995.

The share of recent immigrants with other private income—for example, income from investments or pension plans—is well below the share of the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants with other private income. These shares did not show much change in comparison to 1995.

The incidence of government transfer payment income is slightly higher among immigrants than among the Canadian-born, except for men who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period. The incidence of transfer payment income has shifted markedly from men to women since 1995 in part due to the fact that in 2000, child benefit payments were made to the mother.

Average income comparable for 1996-2001 and 1986-1995 immigrants

The average income of recent immigrants in the year 2000 was lower than that of the Canadian-born, considering only persons who reported income. For recent immigrant men and women, average income was about three-quarters of that of the Canadian-born. The average income of earlier immigrants who landed before 1986 was about 15% higher than that of the Canadian-born.

The average income of women is about 60% of that of men. Among the reasons for the difference in income between men and women are lower labour force participation and higher incidence of part-time work and of jobs requiring a lower level of skill among women than among men, as shown in Part D. Compared to 1995, average incomes increased by about 16% in year 2000. However, the average income of very recent immigrants increased by 40% for women and 20% for men.

Earnings from employment account for the bulk of income of all groups and make up a larger proportion of the income of recent immigrants than of persons born in Canada. In 2000, the employment share of income remained much the same as in 1995, except for an increase of 6 percentage points for very recent immigrant men.

The share of other private income is lower for recent immigrants than for the Canadian-born, especially for men. Government transfer payments make up a larger share of the income of immigrant women than Canadian-born women.

Table E-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, with income—average income and sources of average income, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  Sources of average income
  Average income of persons with income Employment
income
Other private income Government transfers Total
Women
Canadian-born $21,750 71% 12% 16% 100%
Immigrants $22,260 62% 17% 21% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 $24,850 58% 20% 22% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $16,530 76% 6% 18% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $17,010 72% 8% 20% 100%
Men
Canadian-born $34,970 82% 10% 8% 100%
Immigrants $36,880 76% 13% 11% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 $40,730 73% 15% 12% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $29,280 86% 5% 8% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $25,870 88% 5% 7% 100%
Total
Canadian-born $28,050 78% 11% 11% 100%
Immigrants $29,550 71% 14% 14% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 $32,860 68% 17% 15% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $22,250 83% 6% 12% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $21,940 82% 6% 11% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

Earnings of recent immigrants who worked mostly full-time lower

The average wages and salaries earned by recent immigrants who worked mostly full-time in 2000 are well below the Saskatoon average. By contrast, earlier immigrants had substantially higher average wages and salaries than the Canadian-born.

Table E-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, employed mostly full-time—average earnings from wages and salaries, and earnings as percentage of overall average, by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  Amount Percentage of overall average
Canadian-born $33,950 99%
Immigrants $36,880 108%
Immigrated before 1986 $41,700 122%
Immigrated 1986-1995 $28,360 83%
Immigrated 1996-1999 $27,930 82%
All who worked mostly full-time $34,170 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

The relative level of wages and salaries of very recent immigrants in Saskatoon, at 82% of the average, was higher in 2000 than in 1995 by 10 percentage points. Immigrants who landed in Canada during the 1986-1995 period saw their relative earnings decline from near-parity to 83%.

Transfer payments a larger share of income of households of non-seniors

In the year 2000, a large majority of households received government transfer payments. Recent immigrant households were slightly more likely to receive government transfer payments than other households. On average, the payments received were somewhat lower in dollar terms but about the same relative to income.

Transfer payments vary considerably with the age of the oldest person in the household, and so do differences between recent immigrant, earlier immigrant and Canadian-born households. When considered by age group, recent immigrant households are seen to receive a larger amount in transfer payments than Canadian-born households in all age groups.

Transfer payments to households without seniors generally reflect benefits of Employment Insurance, Workers Compensation, social assistance, student assistance, or other programs. Included in these transfer payments are tax credits such as the Canada Child Benefit and GST tax credits and provincial tax credits. The somewhat greater incidence and amounts of transfer payments for recent immigrant households of persons 25 to 64 years of age in relation to earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born may have to do with the larger average number of children in families and with differences in labour market participation and unemployment reviewed in Part D.

Almost all households with persons 65 years of age and over received government transfer payments—Old Age Security and the Guaranteed Income Supplement, and Canada or Quebec Pension Plan Benefits. Recent immigrant households of seniors received a smaller amount. Seniors who immigrated very recently are not entitled to Old Age Security and have not built up large credits under the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan.

Table E-4: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—percentage of households receiving transfers, average amount of government transfer payments, and transfers as a share of income, by age of older parent in family or oldest person in non-family household, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 65 years 65 years and over Total
Share of households receiving government transfer payments
Canadian-born households 89% 89% 82% 100% 89%
Earlier immigrant households 100% 92% 74% 99% 87%
Recent immigrant households 95% 89% 90% 100% 91%
 1986-1995 immigrants 100% 87% 88% 100% 90%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others 71% 90% 86% 100% 90%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 75% 93% 100% 75% 95%
Average amount of transfer per receiving household
Canadian-born households $2,760 $3,590 $3,470 $16,200 $5,920
Earlier immigrant households $1,590 $3,630 $3,250 $16,470 $8,540
Recent immigrant households $4,400 $4,070 $4,820 $17,440 $5,380
 1986-1995 immigrants $3,470 $3,610 $5,250 $21,000 $5,570
 1996-1999 immigrants with others $5,780 $3,390 $4,900 $4,610 $5,060
 1996-1999 immigrants only $4,640 $5,430 $2,640 $15,540 $5,130
Transfers as a share of income, all households
Canadian-born households 11% 6% 4% 42% 10%
Earlier immigrant households 4% 6% 3% 37% 12%
Recent immigrant households 28% 7% 7% 47% 10%
 1986-1995 immigrants 24% 6% 8% 55% 10%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others 39% 5% 5% 14% 7%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 24% 12% 6% 46% 13%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

The distribution of income

Large differences between all groups

Of very recent immigrants, one-half of women and almost one-third of men reported no income or income of less than $10,000 in 2000. Among the Canadian-born, approximately 30% women and just over 20% of men had no or very low income.

At the high end of the income scale, recent immigrants are underrepresented. Their share in the upper income group of $50,000 and over is less than one-half of that of the Canadian-born. By contrast, the share of earlier immigrants with incomes of $50,000 and over is larger than that of the Canadian-born.

Table E-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—income levels, by gender (number and percentage distribution) and average income by gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  Without
income
$1 to
$9,999
$10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $49,999 $50,000 and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,780 22,080 37,100 14,870 5,540 83,370
Immigrants 280 1,990 3,650 1,110 610 7,660
 Immigrated before 1986 80 1,050 2,600 820 550 5,110
 Immigrated 1986-1995 110 630 760 210 50 1,760
 Immigrated 1996-1999 100 310 300 80 10 790
Men
Canadian-born 2,900 13,810 22,950 19,740 16,120 75,510
Immigrants 170 1,120 2,820 1,670 1,720 7,500
 Immigrated before 1986 20 530 1,940 1,220 1,420 5,140
 Immigrated 1986-1995 110 340 490 300 220 1,440
 Immigrated 1996-1999 50 250 390 150 90 920
Total
Canadian-born 6,680 35,890 60,050 34,610 21,660 158,870
Immigrants 460 3,120 6,460 2,800 2,330 15,150
 Immigrated before 1986 110 1,590 4,540 2,050 1,970 10,250
 Immigrated 1986-1995 220 980 1,240 520 260 3,200
 Immigrated 1996-1999 140 550 680 230 110 1,700
  Without income $1 to
$10,000
$10,000 to $30,000 $30,000 to $50,000 Over
$50,000
Total Average income
Women
Canadian-born 5% 26% 45% 18% 7% 100% $20,760
Immigrants 4% 26% 48% 14% 8% 100% $21,400
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 21% 51% 16% 11% 100% $24,440
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 36% 43% 12% 3% 100% $15,450
 Immigrated 1996-1999 12% 39% 37% 10% 1% 100% $14,970
Men
Canadian-born 4% 18% 30% 26% 21% 100% $33,620
Immigrants 2% 15% 38% 22% 23% 100% $36,030
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 10% 38% 24% 28% 100% $40,560
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 24% 34% 21% 15% 100% $27,140
 Immigrated 1996-1999 5% 27% 43% 16% 10% 100% $24,600
Total
Canadian-born 4% 23% 38% 22% 14% 100% $26,880
Immigrants 3% 21% 43% 18% 15% 100% $28,650
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 16% 44% 20% 19% 100% $32,530
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 30% 39% 16% 8% 100% $20,720
 Immigrated 1996-1999 8% 32% 40% 14% 6% 100% $20,200

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

Average household income similar

In 2000, recent immigrant households in Saskatoon had average income of $51,200, marginally less than the average income of Saskatoon’s Canadian-born households. The income of households consisting only of very recent immigrants was three-quarters of that of the households of the Canadian-born. By contrast, earlier immigrant households had higher average income than households of the Canadian-born—one-quarter of these households had incomes of $80,000 or more.

Table E-6: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—household income levels (number and percentage distribution) and average household income, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
Households $0 to $19,999 $20,000 to $39,999 $40,000 to $59,999 $60,000 to $79,999 $80,000 and over Total Average income
Canadian-born 16,380 19,450 16,260 11,410 14,480 77,950 $52,580
21% 25% 21% 15% 19% 100%
Earlier immigrants 1,220 1,820 1,560 940 1,860 7,400 $61,440
16% 25% 21% 13% 25% 100%
Recent immigrants 600 680 610 390 440 2,700 $51,200
24% 26% 21% 13% 15% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 330 380 360 280 270 1,620 $52,350
20% 23% 22% 17% 16% 100%
 1996-1999 immigrants
 with others
50 130 140 70 140 500 $61,650
14% 28% 24% 13% 22% 100%
 1996-1999 immigrants
  only
220 180 120 40 40 580 $38,890
42% 31% 15% 6% 5% 100%
All households 18,640 22,210 18,480 12,780 16,840 88,940 $53,030
21% 25% 21% 14% 19% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents non shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Approximately 40% of households consisting only of very recent immigrants had income of less than $20,000, in spite of their large size. Twenty-one percent of Canadian-born households were in this lowest income range.

Households that combine very recent immigrants with other persons had rather high incomes on average. This may be influenced by the larger size of these households and the fact that other members of the household have lived in Canada for more than five years and are more likely to participate in the labour market.

Low income twice as common among very recent immigrants

Recent immigrants are more likely than earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born to live in families with incomes below the overall median family income, or if they do not live in families, to have income below the median for unattached individuals. They are also more likely to live in families with incomes below one-half of the median income—that is, to have low income. The percentage of immigrants with income in the bottom half or quarter of the income distribution declines in relation to the immigrant cohort’s length of stay in Canada. The incidence of incomes below the median level of income and of low income in 2000 changed little from five years earlier, for all groups.

Table E-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—family or individual income below the median, by age and gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 11,490 10,330 14,250 15,470 51,530
Immigrants 300 400 1,300 2,300 4,270
 Immigrated before 1986 - 50 510 1,850 2,390
 Immigrated 1986-1995 120 250 440 330 1,130
 Immigrated 1996-1999 190 110 360 120 760
Men
Canadian-born 12,020 7,790 11,720 11,390 42,900
Immigrants 330 390 1,200 2,030 3,900
 Immigrated before 1986 - 110 460 1,680 2,230
 Immigrated 1986-1995 110 170 300 260 810
 Immigrated 1996-1999 230 120 450 90 870
Total
Canadian-born 23,500 18,110 25,970 26,860 94,430
Immigrants 630 790 2,500 4,320 8,160
 Immigrated before 1986 - 160 960 3,520 4,610
 Immigrated 1986-1995 220 410 740 590 1,930
 Immigrated 1996-1999 410 220 800 210 1,620
 
Women
Canadian-born 52% 57% 45% 46% 49%
Immigrants 75% 65% 57% 48% 53%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 40% 53% 46% 47%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 79% 66% 54% 58% 60%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 73% 88% 69% 73% 72%
Men
Canadian-born 51% 47% 40% 39% 43%
Immigrants 80% 60% 50% 45% 49%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 57% 42% 44% 43%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 81% 56% 45% 51% 51%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 79% 70% 71% 75% 72%
Total
Canadian-born 52% 52% 42% 43% 46%
Immigrants 77% 62% 54% 47% 51%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 50% 47% 45% 45%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 80% 62% 50% 55% 56%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 76% 77% 70% 74% 72%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

The proportion of individuals with income below the median varies with age and to a lesser extent gender. In all age and gender groups, the proportion of persons with income below the overall median is much higher among recent immigrants than among the Canadian-born.

One-third of very recent immigrants who landed between 1996 and 1999 have low incomes or live in low-income families. Very recent immigrants are twice as likely to live in this type of situation as the Canadian-born. For all age groups, the incidence of low incomes is much greater among recent immigrants than among the Canadian-born.

Figure E-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage with family or individual income below the median and below one-half of the median, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2000

Figure E-1

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all figures in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

Table E-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—family or individual income below one-half of the median, by age and gender, Saskatoon Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 4,400 5,210 5,150 4,080 18,840
Immigrants 110 240 450 680 1,440
 Immigrated before 1986 - 30 190 490 700
 Immigrated 1986-1995 40 140 110 150 420
 Immigrated 1996-1999 70 70 150 50 330
Men
Canadian-born 4,590 3,400 3,270 3,290 14,550
Immigrants 120 160 420 660 1,350
 Immigrated before 1986 - 40 130 530 690
 Immigrated 1986-1995 30 50 90 80 250
 Immigrated 1996-1999 100 80 200 50 420
Total
Canadian-born 8,990 8,610 8,420 7,370 33,390
Immigrants 230 400 860 1,330 2,790
 Immigrated before 1986 - 70 320 1,020 1,390
 Immigrated 1986-1995 60 190 200 230 660
 Immigrated 1996-1999 170 150 350 90 750
 
Women
Canadian-born 20% 29% 16% 12% 18%
Immigrants 26% 38% 19% 14% 18%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 24% 19% 12% 14%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 24% 36% 14% 26% 22%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 27% 58% 29% 27% 32%
Men
Canadian-born 20% 20% 11% 11% 15%
Immigrants 29% 25% 17% 15% 17%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 19% 12% 14% 13%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19% 17% 13% 16% 16%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 33% 45% 32% 38% 35%
Total
Canadian-born 20% 25% 14% 12% 16%
Immigrants 28% 31% 18% 14% 18%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 21% 15% 13% 14%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 22% 28% 13% 21% 19%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 31% 51% 31% 32% 33%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

Date Modified: