Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Toronto—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower the more recent the arrival

Very recent immigrants are not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. The difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is eighteen percentage points for women and six percentage points for men. Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is rather more like that of the Canadian-born, with immigrant men showing higher rates of participation and women showing lower rates of participation than their Canadian-born counterparts. A pattern of adjustment and increasing involvement of immigrants in the Canadian labour market with longer stay is evident in all three age groups, for both men and women. Immigrant women have a larger gap to bridge than immigrant men. Earlier immigrants in the 45-64 age group do not quite reach the level of participation of the Canadian-born. Young persons who immigrated before 1986 are more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born of the same age. This last group is very small, however, accounting for only a small percentage of earlier immigrants.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 133,400 331,240 154,130 618,770
Immigrants 52,130 301,780 218,570 572,480
 Immigrated before 1986 6,450 104,610 154,660 265,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 30,090 128,440 49,590 208,110
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15,600 68,730 14,340 98,660
Men
Canadian-born 134,130 360,750 167,280 662,150
Immigrants 54,010 318,930 261,490 634,420
 Immigrated before 1986 6,490 105,840 179,730 292,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 31,960 132,950 59,250 224,150
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15,560 80,140 22,510 118,210
Total
Canadian-born 267,520 691,990 321,410 1,280,920
Immigrants 106,140 620,710 480,050 1,206,890
 Immigrated before 1986 12,940 210,450 334,380 557,770
 Immigrated 1986-1995 62,040 261,390 108,840 432,260
 Immigrated 1996-2001 31,160 148,870 36,850 216,870

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 68% 85% 73% 78% 618,770
Immigrants 54% 77% 65% 69% 572,480
 Immigrated before 1986 73% 84% 67% 73% 265,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 56% 77% 64% 70% 208,110
 Immigrated 1996-2001 47% 67% 50% 60% 98,660
Men
Canadian-born 66% 93% 85% 84% 662,150
Immigrants 55% 91% 83% 83% 634,420
 Immigrated before 1986 70% 92% 83% 86% 292,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 56% 91% 84% 82% 224,150
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50% 88% 77% 78% 118,210
Total
Canadian-born 67% 89% 79% 81% 1,280,920
Immigrants 55% 83% 73% 76% 1,206,890
 Immigrated before 1986 71% 88% 75% 79% 557,770
 Immigrated 1986-1995 56% 84% 73% 76% 432,260
 Immigrated 1996-2001 48% 77% 63% 68% 216,870

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Labour force participation was higher for most cohorts in the 2001 Census than in the 1996 Census. The young and old age cohorts showed greater gains than the middle age cohorts. Participation increased most among very recent immigrants: by five percentage points for very recent immigrant women, compared to two percentage points for other female cohorts, and seven percentage points for very recent immigrant men, compared to one percentage point for other male cohorts.

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-1, Women

Figure D-1, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education, the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants, with one exception: men who immigrated after 1985 and who at the time of the 2001 Census had only attended elementary school had a higher participation rate than those with some high school.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born— labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,830 91,580 167,410 177,110 178,840 618,770
Immigrants 35,910 81,100 135,120 173,150 147,210 572,480
 Immigrated before 1986 21,160 36,530 61,590 87,590 58,860 265,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10,720 31,820 53,590 63,490 48,510 208,110
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,020 12,770 19,940 22,080 39,850 98,660
Men
Canadian-born 7,210 120,370 174,970 181,680 177,940 662,150
Immigrants 41,420 96,270 131,230 179,590 185,930 634,420
 Immigrated before 1986 25,040 42,870 54,970 96,920 72,260 292,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12,690 38,430 56,370 60,760 55,890 224,150
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,680 14,960 19,900 21,920 57,770 118,210
Total
Canadian-born 11,050 211,950 342,370 358,790 356,770 1,280,920
Immigrants 77,320 177,370 266,340 352,740 333,130 1,206,890
 Immigrated before 1986 46,200 79,390 116,550 184,490 131,110 557,770
 Immigrated 1986-1995 23,410 70,250 109,970 124,260 104,410 432,260
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7,700 27,730 39,840 43,990 97,610 216,870

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates by level of education and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 37% 58% 79% 85% 87% 78%
Immigrants 43% 56% 69% 79% 80% 69%
 Immigrated before 1986 43% 64% 75% 81% 85% 73%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 46% 54% 68% 82% 82% 70%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 37% 44% 55% 68% 70% 60%
Men
Canadian-born 55% 67% 85% 93% 92% 84%
Immigrants 72% 70% 81% 89% 89% 83%
Immigrated before 1986 70% 81% 87% 89% 91% 86%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 79% 66% 80% 91% 90% 82%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 65% 56% 71% 86% 87% 78%
Total
Canadian-born 48% 63% 82% 88% 89% 81%
Immigrants 55% 63% 74% 84% 85% 76%
 Immigrated before 1986 54% 73% 80% 85% 88% 79%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 59% 60% 74% 86% 86% 76%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 47% 50% 62% 76% 79% 68%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

As well, immigrants with little schooling, even very recent immigrants, are equally or more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born with low education. But at all other education levels there is a standard pattern of relatively low participation rates for very recently landed immigrants and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born with longer stay.

Participation rates have increased for some cohorts since the 1996 Census, by one to three percentage points for most education levels and immigrant cohorts. The increases for very recent immigrants, by education level, are not as high as the gains by age group mentioned earlier.

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-2, women

Figure D-2, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Knowledge of English important for labour force participation

Most immigrants report that they have knowledge of either English or French when they immigrate to Canada. As reported at the time of the 2001 Census, the large majority of both men and women who immigrated during the 1990s and settled in Toronto have knowledge of English. Those who do not report having knowledge of English are not nearly as active in the labour market as those who do. The gap in labour force participation between those who speak English and those who do not speak English is larger among earlier immigrants than among recent immigrants and also larger among women than among men.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, labour force 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Population Labour force
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born - - 618,530 618,770
Immigrants 50,140 20,180 552,290 572,480
 Immigrated before 1986 13,170 4,890 260,830 265,710
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20,120 8,690 199,410 208,110
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16,880 6,590 92,080 98,660
Men
Canadian-born - - 661,800 662,150
Immigrants 28,390 19,070 615,350 634,420
 Immigrated before 1986 7,670 4,850 287,210 292,060
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12,090 8,930 215,230 224,150
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8,620 5,300 112,900 118,210
Total
Canadian-born - - 1,280,320 1,280,920
Immigrants 78,520 39,240 1,167,660 1,206,890
 Immigrated before 1986 20,800 9,730 548,050 557,770
 Immigrated 1986-1995 32,220 17,610 414,640 432,260
 Immigrated 1996-2001 25,490 11,890 204,980 216,870

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates by knowledge of English and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Population share Labour force participation rate
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born - - 78% 78%
Immigrants 6% 40% 71% 69%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 37% 74% 73%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 43% 72% 70%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 39% 62% 60%
Men
Canadian-born - - 84% 84%
Immigrants 4% 67% 83% 83%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 63% 86% 86%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 74% 82% 82%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 61% 79% 78%
Total
Canadian-born - - 81% 81%
Immigrants 5% 50% 77% 76%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 47% 80% 79%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 55% 77% 76%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 47% 70% 68%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Unemployment not uncommon during initial years

Immigrants who are in their initial years in Canada are more likely to experience unemployment than those who have been in the country for a longer period of time. For instance, very recently immigrated men in Toronto experienced unemployment rates from 9% to 14%, depending on their age group, and very recent immigrant women experienced rates of 14% to 16%, also depending on their age group. Unemployment is significantly lower among persons who immigrated before 1996, except for among the youngest age group, but it is still higher than for the Canadian-born.

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 13,970 13,570 4,540 32,070
Immigrants 7,580 25,350 11,310 44,230
 Immigrated before 1986 800 5,320 6,030 12,150
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,230 9,490 3,240 16,950
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,540 10,540 2,050 15,120
Men
Canadian-born 15,800 12,330 4,730 32,850
Immigrants 7,360 18,220 11,490 37,070
 Immigrated before 1986 820 4,180 6,160 11,150
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,330 6,480 2,940 13,750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,220 7,570 2,390 12,180
Total
Canadian-born 29,760 25,900 9,260 64,910
Immigrants 14,940 43,560 22,810 81,300
 Immigrated before 1986 1,620 9,480 12,190 23,290
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8,570 15,970 6,170 30,700
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,750 18,110 4,440 27,300

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by age and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 10% 4% 3% 5% 100%
Immigrants 15% 8% 5% 8% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 5% 4% 5% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 7% 7% 8% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16% 15% 14% 15% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 12% 3% 3% 5% 100%
Immigrants 14% 6% 4% 6% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 13% 4% 3% 4% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 5% 5% 6% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 14% 9% 11% 10% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 11% 4% 3% 5% 100%
Immigrants 14% 7% 5% 7% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 13% 5% 4% 4% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 6% 6% 7% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15% 12% 12% 13% 100%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The unemployment rate for all age and gender cohorts shown in Table D-8 was lower in 2001 than in 1996. The decline was greater for the young and for very recent immigrants (five to ten percentage points) than for other cohorts (one to six percentage points).

The pattern just displayed, of unemployment rates that vary inversely with length of stay in Canada, occurs at all levels of education. For instance, men who immigrated after 1995 and who have a high school diploma have an unemployment rate of 10%. The rate drops to 7% for immigrants who landed between 1986 and 1995.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, unemployed, 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 330 7,060 10,550 7,660 6,480 32,070
Immigrants 2,730 7,270 11,370 11,230 11,650 44,230
 Immigrated before 1986 1,170 1,980 3,040 3,790 2,190 12,150
 Immigrated 1986-1995 880 3,460 5,300 4,340 2,990 16,950
 Immigrated 1996-2001 670 1,850 3,030 3,100 6,470 15,120
Men
Canadian-born 570 9,600 10,700 6,320 5,660 32,850
Immigrants 1,890 6,720 8,660 8,320 11,480 37,070
 Immigrated before 1986 870 1,980 2,470 3,570 2,280 11,150
 Immigrated 1986-1995 720 3,060 4,170 2,980 2,840 13,750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 310 1,700 2,030 1,790 6,380 12,180
Total
Canadian-born 900 16,670 21,240 13,980 12,140 64,910
Immigrants 4,610 13,990 20,030 19,550 23,130 81,300
 Immigrated before 1986 2,020 3,930 5,500 7,350 4,470 23,290
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,590 6,520 9,470 7,310 5,840 30,700
 Immigrated 1996-2001 980 3,540 5,060 4,880 12,840 27,300

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Recent immigrant women experience more unemployment than recent immigrant men, irrespective of their education level. The gap between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is also larger for women than for men at any level of education.

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by level of education and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 9% 8% 6% 4% 4% 5%
Immigrants 8% 9% 8% 6% 8% 8%
 Immigrated before 1986 6% 5% 5% 4% 4% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8% 11% 10% 7% 6% 8%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 17% 14% 15% 14% 16% 15%
Men
Canadian-born 8% 8% 6% 3% 3% 5%
Immigrants 5% 7% 7% 5% 6% 6%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 5% 4% 4% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 8% 7% 5% 5% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 11% 10% 8% 11% 10%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 8% 6% 4% 3% 5%
Immigrants 6% 8% 8% 6% 7% 7%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 5% 5% 4% 3% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 9% 9% 6% 6% 7%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 13% 13% 11% 13% 13%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

All education levels and gender groups had a lower unemployment rate in 2001 than in 1996. The unemployment rate declined more for the recent and very recent immigrant cohort than for earlier immigrant cohorts and the Canadian-born. The improvement was greater the lower the level of education.

Recent immigrants who do not speak English are more likely to be unemployed than those who speak English. The difference in unemployment rates between those who speak English and those who do not varies from zero to four percentage points, depending on gender and period of immigration. It occurs among earlier immigrants as well as among recent immigrants. These are not large differences compared to the effect of language on participation rates examined above.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Labour Force Unemployment rate
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born - - 32,050 32,070
Immigrants 20,180 2,350 41,890 44,230
 Immigrated before 1986 4,890 420 11,750 12,150
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8,690 760 16,200 16,950
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6,590 1,180 13,940 15,120
Men
Canadian-born - - 32,840 32,850
Immigrants 19,070 1,520 35,550 37,070
 Immigrated before 1986 4,850 270 10,860 11,150
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8,930 560 13,190 13,750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5,300 680 11,500 12,180
Total
Canadian-born - - 64,880 64,910
Immigrants 39,240 3,870 77,430 81,300
 Immigrated before 1986 9,730 690 22,630 23,290
 Immigrated 1986-1995 17,610 1,310 29,410 30,700
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11,890 1,870 25,420 27,300

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by knowledge of English and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Share of labour force Unemployment rate
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born - - 5% 5%
Immigrants 4% 12% 8% 8%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 8% 5% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 9% 8% 8%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 18% 15% 15%
Men
Canadian-born - - 5% 5%
Immigrants 3% 8% 6% 6%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 5% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 6% 6% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4% 13% 10% 10%
Total
Canadian-born - - 5% 5%
Immigrants 3% 10% 7% 7%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 7% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 7% 7% 7%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 16% 12% 13%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Share of men and women with jobs increases with length of stay

One in two very recently immigrated women aged 15 to 64 are employed, compared to three in four Canadian-born women. For men, the difference is smaller: seven in ten very recent immigrants are employed compared to eight in ten Canadian-born men. As shown in the previous pages, these differences in employment rates mainly reflect differences in labour force participation rates.

Among immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is more common than among the more recently landed. For men and women aged 25 to 44 and 45 to 64 years, the employment rate of immigrants who landed before 1986 is one to seven percentage points lower than the employment rate of the Canadian-born. The overall employment rates show a smaller gap, and this is due to the differences in age distribution (many earlier immigrants are 45 to 64 years old, and few are under 25).

In 2001, employment was higher among all cohorts than in 1996. The changes were greater for the younger and older cohorts than for those at prime working age. Immigrants experienced a greater change than the Canadian-born experienced, and the more recent the arrival of the immigrant cohort, the greater the gain.

Table D-13: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 119,430 317,680 149,600 586,710
Immigrants 44,550 276,440 207,260 528,240
 Immigrated before 1986 5,650 99,300 148,620 253,570
 Immigrated 1986-1995 25,860 118,960 46,350 191,160
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13,060 58,190 12,290 83,540
Men
Canadian-born 118,330 348,410 162,560 629,300
Immigrants 46,640 300,720 250,000 597,350
 Immigrated before 1986 5,680 101,680 173,570 280,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 27,620 126,480 56,320 210,410
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13,350 72,570 20,120 106,040
Total
Canadian-born 237,770 666,090 312,150 1,216,010
Immigrants 91,200 577,150 457,250 1,125,600
 Immigrated before 1986 11,320 200,970 322,190 534,470
 Immigrated 1986-1995 53,480 245,430 102,670 401,570
 Immigrated 1996-2001 26,410 130,760 32,410 189,570

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-14: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 61% 82% 71% 74% 586,710
Immigrants 46% 70% 61% 64% 528,240
 Immigrated before 1986 64% 80% 64% 69% 253,570
 Immigrated 1986-1995 48% 71% 60% 64% 191,160
 Immigrated 1996-2001 39% 57% 43% 51% 83,540
Men
Canadian-born 58% 90% 83% 80% 629,300
Immigrants 48% 86% 79% 78% 597,350
 Immigrated before 1986 61% 89% 80% 83% 280,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 48% 87% 80% 77% 210,410
 Immigrated 1996-2001 43% 79% 69% 70% 106,040
Total
Canadian-born 59% 86% 77% 77% 1,216,010
Immigrants 47% 77% 70% 71% 1,125,600
 Immigrated before 1986 62% 84% 72% 76% 534,470
 Immigrated 1986-1995 48% 79% 69% 70% 401,570
 Immigrated 1996-2001 41% 67% 56% 60% 189,570

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs more common for very recent immigrants aged 25 to 64

The proportion of employed persons who work part-time varies considerably by age and gender, both for immigrants and the Canadian-born. Half or more of employed young adults work part-time. Fifteen to 25% of employed women aged 25 to 64, varying by cohort, work part-time, while for men the share is 5% to 11%, again varying by cohort.

Table D-15: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—age and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 89,430 60,390 34,360 184,170
Immigrants 30,630 48,250 42,390 121,270
 Immigrated before 1986 3,490 15,990 30,130 49,610
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19,890 22,090 9,430 51,400
 Immigrated 1996-1999 7,260 10,180 2,840 20,270
Men
Canadian-born 79,110 19,980 11,450 110,530
Immigrants 28,700 17,320 16,720 62,740
 Immigrated before 1986 3,240 5,380 10,550 19,160
 Immigrated 1986-1995 18,470 7,980 4,160 30,600
 Immigrated 1996-1999 7,000 3,970 2,020 12,980
Total
Canadian-born 168,530 80,380 45,800 294,700
Immigrants 59,350 65,570 59,120 184,040
 Immigrated before 1986 6,740 21,370 40,690 68,790
 Immigrated 1986-1995 38,360 30,070 13,590 82,010
 Immigrated 1996-1999 14,260 14,140 4,850 33,250

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Table D-16: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed working mostly part-time, by age and gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 61% 18% 21% 28%
Immigrants 59% 17% 19% 22%
 Immigrated before 1986 52% 15% 19% 18%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 61% 17% 19% 24%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 57% 20% 25% 27%
Men
Canadian-born 53% 5% 7% 16%
Immigrants 52% 6% 6% 10%
 Immigrated before 1986 45% 5% 6% 6%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 53% 6% 7% 13%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 53% 7% 11% 15%
Total
Canadian-born 57% 11% 14% 22%
Immigrants 55% 11% 12% 16%
 Immigrated before 1986 48% 10% 12% 12%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 57% 11% 12% 19%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 55% 13% 16% 20%

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Part-time employment is more common for very recent immigrants of either gender and aged 25 to 44 or 45 to 64 than for other population groups, but this is not so for those aged 15 to 24.

The share of jobs that was part-time was lower in 2001 than in 1996 for the 25-44 and 45-64 age groups. The changes were generally in the order of one to two percentage points, and up to four percentage points for the very recent immigrant cohort. Young very recent immigrants saw an increase in part-time employment.

Many recent immigrants in sales and services and processing occupations

Employed immigrants are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in sales and service jobs and processing jobs. More than one in three employed recent immigrants are employed in sales and service jobs or processing jobs, compared to two in ten Canadian-born persons. The differences between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born are greater for women than for men. By contrast, management and social occupations, which are favoured by the Canadian-born, account for a smaller share of the jobs of earlier and recent immigrants.

Table D-17: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Pro-
cessing
Admin-
istrative
Manage-
ment and social sciences
Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 73,060 12,480 161,960 160,640 8,470 50,680 467,280
Immigrants 105,820 60,620 147,070 95,450 12,430 62,300 483,690
 Immigrated  before 1986 48,630 23,590 82,680 56,960 5,860 30,220 247,910
 Immigrated  1986-1995 39,420 26,000 47,050 27,330 4,500 20,990 165,300
 Immigrated  1996-2001 17,790 11,030 17,330 11,170 2,070 11,100 70,480
Men
Canadian-born 76,330 32,070 72,060 165,070 97,510 67,940 510,970
Immigrants 83,870 72,170 63,030 114,120 127,040 90,510 550,710
 Immigrated  before 1986 40,590 28,690 31,360 68,350 67,120 39,130 275,240
 Immigrated  1986-1995 29,030 28,800 20,810 31,590 44,670 27,910 182,790
 Immigrated  1996-2001 14,270 14,690 10,860 14,160 15,260 23,480 92,700
Total
Canadian-born 149,390 44,550 234,020 325,700 105,980 118,620 978,240
Immigrants 189,690 132,800 210,100 209,560 139,460 152,790 1,034,400
 Immigrated  before 1986 89,200 52,290 114,040 125,330 72,980 69,330 523,150
 Immigrated  1986-1995 68,430 54,800 67,860 58,920 49,160 48,900 348,100
 Immigrated  1996-2001 32,050 25,720 28,200 25,320 17,320 34,570 163,170
 
Women
Canadian-born 16% 3% 35% 34% 2% 11% 100%
Immigrants 22% 13% 30% 20% 3% 13% 100%
 Immigrated  before 1986 20% 10% 33% 23% 2% 12% 100%
 Immigrated  1986-1995 24% 16% 28% 17% 3% 13% 100%
 Immigrated  1996-2001 25% 16% 25% 16% 3% 16% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 15% 6% 14% 32% 19% 13% 100%
Immigrants 15% 13% 11% 21% 23% 16% 100%
 Immigrated  before 1986 15% 10% 11% 25% 24% 14% 100%
 Immigrated  1986-1995 16% 16% 11% 17% 24% 15% 100%
 Immigrated  1996-2001 15% 16% 12% 15% 16% 25% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 15% 5% 24% 33% 11% 12% 100%
Immigrants 18% 13% 20% 20% 13% 15% 100%
 Immigrated  before 1986 17% 10% 22% 24% 14% 13% 100%
 Immigrated  1986-1995 20% 16% 19% 17% 14% 14% 100%
 Immigrated  1996-2001 20% 16% 17% 16% 11% 21% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The distribution of occupations of very recent immigrants is quite similar to that of earlier cohorts, with two exceptions: a higher proportion of very recent immigrants than earlier immigrants work in health and science fields, especially among male immigrants, and a lower proportion of very recent immigrants than earlier immigrants work in trades and transport occupations. This is something specific to the latest cohort, as five years earlier the share of jobs in health occupations was quite similar across all cohorts.

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-3, Women

Figure D-3, Men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Many recent immigrants in manufacturing, few in the public sector

In Toronto, relative to the Canadian-born, a large proportion of employed recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 work in manufacturing industries and, for women, in hospitality and other services industries. By contrast, the construction and transportation industries and the public sector account for a smaller share of jobs of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born. Compared to 1996, employment in business services industries among the very recent immigrant cohort is more prevalent, and employment in hospitality and other services industries is less prevalent.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Table D-18: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Con-
struction and Trans-
portation
Trade Business services Public
sector
Hospi-
tality and other services
Total
Women
Canadian-born 47,210 35,930 69,260 120,830 145,400 48,660 467,280
Immigrants 85,830 25,700 73,690 110,490 119,260 68,730 483,690
 Immigrated
 before 1986
37,680 15,090 36,370 57,980 70,650 30,140 247,910
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
33,690 7,640 25,630 35,460 36,070 26,800 165,290
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
14,410 2,980 11,680 17,090 12,530 11,780 70,480
Men
Canadian-born 85,840 101,510 87,950 125,240 64,010 46,410 510,960
Immigrants 140,630 103,660 88,330 113,620 46,240 58,230 550,720
 Immigrated
 before 1986
63,930 57,240 43,730 53,550 29,510 27,260 275,230
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
51,190 34,060 29,990 34,340 11,840 21,380 182,790
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
25,490 12,380 14,610 25,740 4,900 9,590 92,690
Total
Canadian-born 133,050 137,430 157,210 246,090 209,410 95,070 978,240
Immigrants 226,460 129,370 162,020 224,120 165,510 126,960 1,034,400
 Immigrated
 before 1986
101,630 72,310 80,120 111,500 100,150 57,400 523,160
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
84,890 41,670 55,620 69,790 47,920 48,190 348,090
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
39,900 15,360 26,280 42,810 17,430 21,380 163,170
 
Women
Canadian-born 10% 8% 15% 26% 31% 10% 100%
Immigrants 18% 5% 15% 23% 25% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
15% 6% 15% 23% 28% 12% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
20% 5% 16% 21% 22% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
20% 4% 17% 24% 18% 17% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 17% 20% 17% 25% 13% 9% 100%
Immigrants 26% 19% 16% 21% 8% 11% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
23% 21% 16% 19% 11% 10% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
28% 19% 16% 19% 6% 12% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
28% 13% 16% 28% 5% 10% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 14% 14% 16% 25% 21% 10% 100%
Immigrants 22% 13% 16% 22% 16% 12% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
19% 14% 15% 21% 19% 11% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
24% 12% 16% 20% 14% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
24% 9% 16% 26% 11% 13% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Skill requirements of jobs of recent immigrants lower

The jobs of recent immigrants require lower skills than the jobs of the Canadian-born. Two in five jobs of Canadian-born women require the highest level of skill: a university education. For women who landed after 1995, only one in four jobs requires a university education. There is a larger gap for women than for men between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born in the skill requirements of their jobs.

Table D-19: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 19,920 133,360 127,390 186,600 467,270
Immigrants 55,780 184,100 112,550 131,280 483,690
 Immigrated before 1986 22,080 87,400 63,840 74,610 247,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 23,330 68,270 35,280 38,410 165,310
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10,360 28,430 13,430 18,260 70,480
Men
Canadian-born 29,870 118,540 144,760 217,810 510,970
Immigrants 50,790 157,070 160,160 182,700 550,720
 Immigrated before 1986 21,600 69,090 86,710 97,850 275,240
 Immigrated 1986-1995 18,910 60,280 51,670 51,940 182,790
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10,300 27,700 21,780 32,920 92,690
Total
Canadian-born 49,790 251,900 272,150 404,410 978,240
Immigrants 106,570 341,160 272,700 313,980 1,034,400
 Immigrated before 1986 43,670 156,490 150,560 172,460 523,150
 Immigrated 1986-1995 42,240 128,540 86,940 90,350 348,090
 Immigrated 1996-2001 20,660 56,130 35,210 51,180 163,170
 
Women
Canadian-born 4% 29% 27% 40% 100%
Immigrants 12% 38% 23% 27% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 35% 26% 30% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 41% 21% 23% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15% 40% 19% 26% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 6% 23% 28% 43% 100%
Immigrants 9% 29% 29% 33% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 8% 25% 32% 36% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10% 33% 28% 28% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 30% 23% 36% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 5% 26% 28% 41% 100%
Immigrants 10% 33% 26% 30% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 8% 30% 29% 33% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 37% 25% 26% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 34% 22% 31% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

For both men and women, the skill content of jobs of immigrants who landed before 1986 is closer to that of the Canadian-born. However, the middle group of immigrants, who landed between 1986 and 1995, does not fit this pattern. Their jobs on average require less skill than the jobs of very recent immigrants.

The information presented in Table D-19 does not directly indicate whether the skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels of jobs of employed recent immigrants with the level of education of employed recent immigrants. This is done in Table D-20 for persons holding a university degree.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-5, women

Figure D-5, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Education of recent immigrants not fully utilized

The jobs of recent immigrants with a university degree do not require the same level of skill as the jobs of Canadian-born persons with a university degree. Seven in ten employed Canadian-born women with a university degree have a job requiring a university degree. But only four in ten employed women with university degrees who immigrated after 1995 have a job that requires a university degree. Among persons with a university degree, three-quarters of Canadian-born men but only one-half of very recent immigrant men have a job requiring a university education.

Table D-20: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,260 18,870 27,670 110,250 158,030
Immigrants 5,580 29,930 26,320 68,600 130,430
 Immigrated before 1986 900 9,020 11,040 34,540 55,510
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,040 10,970 9,140 20,590 42,750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,650 9,920 6,150 13,470 32,180
Men
Canadian-born 1,840 14,060 24,050 123,680 163,620
Immigrants 6,950 26,770 31,110 105,990 170,810
 Immigrated before 1986 1,180 6,790 11,340 49,900 69,180
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,110 9,260 9,860 29,890 51,130
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,650 10,730 9,910 26,200 50,500
Total
Canadian-born 3,090 32,920 51,710 233,930 321,650
Immigrants 12,530 56,690 57,430 174,580 301,240
 Immigrated before 1986 2,080 15,810 22,380 84,430 124,690
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,150 20,240 19,000 50,490 93,880
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6,310 20,650 16,060 39,660 82,680
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 12% 18% 70% 100%
Immigrants 4% 23% 20% 53% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 16% 20% 62% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 26% 21% 48% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 31% 19% 42% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 1% 9% 15% 76% 100%
Immigrants 4% 16% 18% 62% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 10% 16% 72% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 18% 19% 58% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 21% 20% 52% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 1% 10% 16% 73% 100%
Immigrants 4% 19% 19% 58% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 13% 18% 68% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 22% 20% 54% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 25% 19% 48% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The skill requirements of jobs of university graduates were higher in 2001 than in 1996, and there was a general shift from jobs requiring only a high school education to jobs requiring a university education. For Canadian-born men and women, the shift was four percentage points; immigrants who had been in the country more than 15 years or from 5 to 15 years experienced a smaller change of approximately two points. For the very recent immigrant cohort, the shift from jobs requiring high school to jobs requiring university was five percentage points for men and eight percentage points for women.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates, with job requiring university education, by gender, Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Date Modified: