Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Vancouver—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower the more recent the arrival

Very recent immigrants are not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. The difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is twenty-three percentage points for women and sixteen percentage points for men. Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is rather more like that of the Canadian-born. A pattern of adjustment to and greater involvement of immigrants in the Canadian labour market with longer stay is evident in all three age groups, for both men and women. Earlier immigrant women in the 45-64 age group do not quite reach the level of participation of the Canadian-born, but those aged 25 to 44 have caught up.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 59,380 153,900 87,990 301,260
Immigrants 18,310 102,470 75,190 195,970
 Immigrated before 1986 2,470 34,700 51,020 88,190
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9,850 42,220 17,660 69,730
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6,000 25,560 6,510 38,060
Men
Canadian-born 60,210 172,780 100,310 333,300
Immigrants 17,890 103,230 89,920 211,040
 Immigrated before 1986 2,500 36,480 59,260 98,240
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10,260 40,440 21,110 71,800
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5,140 26,310 9,570 41,010
Total
Canadian-born 119,580 326,670 188,300 634,550
Immigrants 36,200 205,700 165,110 407,010
 Immigrated before 1986 4,970 71,180 110,270 186,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20,100 82,670 38,770 141,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11,140 51,860 16,070 79,070

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 68% 84% 72% 77% 301,260
Immigrants 49% 73% 61% 65% 195,970
 Immigrated before 1986 75% 83% 68% 73% 88,190
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50% 74% 53% 63% 69,730
 Immigrated 1996-2001 42% 61% 46% 54% 38,060
Men
Canadian-born 66% 92% 83% 83% 333,300
Immigrants 45% 87% 78% 77% 211,040
 Immigrated before 1986 66% 91% 82% 85% 98,240
 Immigrated 1986-1995 46% 87% 72% 73% 71,800
 Immigrated 1996-2001 37% 81% 65% 67% 41,010
Total
Canadian-born 67% 88% 78% 80% 634,550
Immigrants 47% 79% 69% 71% 407,010
 Immigrated before 1986 70% 87% 75% 79% 186,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 48% 80% 62% 68% 141,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40% 70% 55% 60% 79,070

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Labour force participation was higher for the very recent immigrant cohort in the 2001 Census than in the 1996 Census. The young and old age cohorts showed greater gains than the middle age cohorts. Labour force participation of very recent immigrants increased by four percentage points for women, while participation of other women cohorts did not change or declined by up to three percentage points. Labour market conditions in the Vancouver economy were more or less the same in 2001 as in 1996.

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates by age and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-1, women

Figure D-1, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants, with one significant exception: men who immigrated after 1985 and who at the time of the 2001 Census had only attended elementary school had a higher participation rate than those with some high school.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,310 43,340 83,410 103,820 69,400 301,260
Immigrants 10,220 26,500 43,650 62,900 52,720 195,970
 Immigrated before 1986 4,520 11,790 19,190 32,240 20,480 88,190
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,010 9,890 16,870 20,970 18,000 69,730
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,710 4,830 7,600 9,680 14,250 38,060
Men
Canadian-born 3,220 59,830 87,170 111,830 71,250 333,300
Immigrants 10,020 30,870 41,590 65,040 63,530 211,040
 Immigrated before 1986 4,440 14,140 17,470 36,690 25,480 98,240
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,990 11,910 17,070 19,260 19,570 71,800
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,590 4,820 7,050 9,090 18,480 41,010
Total
Canadian-born 4,530 103,160 170,590 215,650 140,650 634,550
Immigrants 20,240 57,380 85,230 127,940 116,240 407,010
 Immigrated before 1986 8,980 25,910 36,650 68,930 45,940 186,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7,980 21,810 33,930 40,240 37,570 141,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,300 9,650 14,640 18,770 32,740 79,070

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 33% 56% 78% 84% 87% 77%
Immigrants 42% 52% 62% 74% 75% 65%
 Immigrated before 1986 44% 64% 72% 79% 84% 73%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 41% 49% 59% 75% 75% 63%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 39% 39% 49% 61% 64% 54%
Men
Canadian-born 52% 66% 86% 90% 92% 83%
Immigrants 66% 63% 72% 85% 84% 77%
 Immigrated before 1986 68% 79% 84% 87% 89% 85%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 66% 59% 68% 85% 83% 73%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 63% 44% 59% 76% 79% 67%
Total
Canadian-born 44% 61% 82% 87% 89% 80%
Immigrants 51% 57% 66% 79% 79% 71%
 Immigrated before 1986 53% 71% 78% 83% 87% 79%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 51% 54% 63% 79% 79% 68%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 48% 41% 53% 67% 71% 60%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Immigrants with little schooling, even very recent immigrants, are more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born with comparable education. But at all other education levels there are a common pattern of relatively low participation rates for very recent immigrants and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born with longer stay.

Labour force participation rates have decreased since 1996 by one to three percentage points for most of the education levels and immigrant cohorts shown in Tables D-3 and D-4. However, very recent immigrant women with a high school diploma or less, very recent immigrant men with a post-secondary diploma or degree and the least educated very recent immigrants were more active in the labour market in 2001 than in 1996. By contrast, recent immigrants who landed between five and fifteen years before the census had lower participation rates than in 1996, regardless of their education level.

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates by level of education and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-2, women

Figure D-2, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Knowledge of English important for labour force participation

Most immigrants report that they have knowledge of either English or French when they immigrate to Canada. As reported at the time of the 2001 Census, the large majority of both men and women who immigrated during the 1990s and settled in Vancouver speak English. Those who do not speak English are not nearly as active in the labour market as those who do. The gap in labour force participation is larger for women than for men.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Population Labour force
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born - - 301,090 301,260
Immigrants 28,180 11,340 184,640 195,970
 Immigrated before 1986 5,110 2,350 85,830 88,190
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12,290 4,960 64,770 69,730
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10,780 4,030 34,040 38,060
Men
Canadian-born - - 333,160 333,300
Immigrants 17,510 10,530 200,510 211,040
 Immigrated before 1986 2,530 1,760 96,490 98,240
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8,020 5,010 66,790 71,800
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6,960 3,770 37,240 41,010
Total
Canadian-born - - 634,260 634,550
Immigrants 45,690 21,860 385,140 407,010
 Immigrated before 1986 7,630 4,090 182,320 186,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20,310 9,970 131,550 141,530
 Immigrated 1996-2001 17,730 7,800 71,270 79,070

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Labour force participation rates of immigrants are lower than they would be if all immigrants had command of English. As measured by the difference between the third and fourth data columns in the table, the rate is three percentage points lower for women and two percentage points for men.

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by knowledge of official languages and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Population share Labour force participation rate
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born - - 77% 77%
Immigrants 9% 40% 68% 65%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 46% 74% 73%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 11% 40% 66% 63%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15% 37% 57% 54%
Men
Canadian-born - - 83% 83%
Immigrants 6% 60% 78% 77%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 70% 85% 85%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8% 62% 74% 73%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 54% 69% 67%
Total
Canadian-born - - 80% 80%
Immigrants 8% 48% 73% 71%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 54% 80% 79%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10% 49% 70% 68%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 44% 63% 60%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Unemployment not uncommon during initial years

Immigrants in their initial years in Canada are more likely to experience unemployment than those who have been in the country for a longer period of time. For instance, very recently immigrated men in Vancouver experienced unemployment rates from 12% to 16%, depending on their age group, and women experienced unemployment rates of 15% to 19%, again depending on their age group. There is significantly less unemployment among persons who immigrated before 1996, except for the youngest age group. Among earlier immigrants the unemployment rate is comparable to that of the Canadian-born.

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 7,010 8,050 3,310 18,370
Immigrants 3,030 9,000 5,150 17,170
 Immigrated before 1986 360 1,860 2,430 4,650
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,690 3,440 1,510 6,630
 Immigrated 1996-2001 990 3,720 1,220 5,920
Men
Canadian-born 8,570 9,670 4,530 22,770
Immigrants 2,860 8,070 5,910 16,830
 Immigrated before 1986 310 2,060 2,960 5,320
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,710 2,980 1,680 6,360
 Immigrated 1996-2001 840 3,040 1,260 5,130
Total
Canadian-born 15,580 17,720 7,840 41,140
Immigrants 5,880 17,060 11,050 33,990
 Immigrated before 1986 670 3,910 5,380 9,950
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,390 6,410 3,200 13,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,830 6,750 2,480 11,050

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by age and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 12% 5% 4% 6% 100%
Immigrants 17% 9% 7% 9% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 15% 5% 5% 5% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 17% 8% 9% 10% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16% 15% 19% 16% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 14% 6% 5% 7% 100%
Immigrants 16% 8% 7% 8% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 6% 5% 5% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 17% 7% 8% 9% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16% 12% 13% 13% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 13% 5% 4% 6% 100%
Immigrants 16% 8% 7% 8% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 13% 5% 5% 5% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 17% 8% 8% 9% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16% 13% 15% 14% 100%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The unemployment rate for almost all age and gender cohorts shown in Table D-8 was lower in 2001 than in 1996, mostly by one percentage point. Recent immigrants, including very recent immigrants, experienced greater improvements than did earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born.

Earlier cohorts have lower unemployment rates than more recent cohorts at all levels of education, with the exception of less educated men. For instance, women who immigrated after 1996 and who have a high school diploma have an unemployment rate of 16%. The rate drops to 11% for female immigrants who landed between 1986 and 1995.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 200 4,380 5,520 5,450 2,810 18,370
Immigrants 1,500 2,690 4,160 4,320 4,500 17,170
 Immigrated before 1986 360 800 1,120 1,510 850 4,650
 Immigrated 1986-1995 680 1,220 1,820 1,500 1,420 6,630
 Immigrated 1996-2001 450 680 1,240 1,310 2,240 5,920
Men
Canadian-born 510 6,600 6,730 6,350 2,580 22,770
Immigrants 1,120 2,710 3,750 4,300 4,960 16,830
 Immigrated before 1986 460 1,040 1,060 1,860 900 5,320
 Immigrated 1986-1995 500 1,070 1,820 1,430 1,560 6,360
 Immigrated 1996-2001 170 600 860 1,000 2,510 5,130
Total
Canadian-born 710 10,990 12,250 11,790 5,400 41,140
Immigrants 2,620 5,400 7,910 8,610 9,460 33,990
 Immigrated before 1986 820 1,840 2,170 3,390 1,750 9,950
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,180 2,290 3,640 2,920 2,980 13,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 620 1,280 2,110 2,310 4,740 11,050

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Overall, very recent immigrant women experienced more unemployment than very recent immigrant men with the same level of education. Women with at least a high school diploma who have been in Canada for five to fifteen years have the same unemployment rates as men in the same cohort.

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by level of education and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 15% 10% 7% 5% 4% 6%
Immigrants 15% 10% 10% 7% 9% 9%
 Immigrated before 1986 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 17% 12% 11% 7% 8% 10%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 26% 14% 16% 13% 16% 16%
Men
Canadian-born 16% 11% 8% 6% 4% 7%
Immigrants 11% 9% 9% 7% 8% 8%
 Immigrated before 1986 10% 7% 6% 5% 4% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 9% 11% 7% 8% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 12% 12% 11% 14% 13%
Total
Canadian-born 16% 11% 7% 5% 4% 6%
Immigrants 13% 9% 9% 7% 8% 8%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 7% 6% 5% 4% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15% 10% 11% 7% 8% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 19% 13% 14% 12% 14% 14%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Most cohorts aged 15 to 64 had a somewhat lower unemployment rate in 2001 than in 1996. The unemployment rate declined more for recent and very recent immigrants than for earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born. As well, the improvement was greater the lower the level of education.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of official languages and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Labour force Unemployed
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born - - 18,320 18,370
Immigrants 11,340 1,860 15,320 17,170
 Immigrated before 1986 2,350 300 4,340 4,650
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4,960 770 5,860 6,630
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,030 810 5,120 5,920
Men
Canadian-born - - 22,750 22,770
Immigrants 10,530 1,430 15,410 16,830
 Immigrated before 1986 1,760 170 5,160 5,320
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5,010 630 5,740 6,360
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,770 640 4,510 5,130
Total
Canadian-born - - 41,080 41,140
Immigrants 21,860 3,280 30,710 33,990
 Immigrated before 1986 4,090 460 9,490 9,950
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9,970 1,380 11,600 13,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7,800 1,430 9,630 11,050

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Recent immigrants who do not speak English are more likely to be unemployed than those who speak English. The difference in unemployment rates between those who speak English and those who do not varies from three to eight percentage points, depending on gender and period of immigration. This difference occurs among earlier immigrants as well as among recent immigrants. These are not large differences compared to the effect of language on participation rates examined above. Knowledge of English is far more important to the decision to seek employment than to the risk of losing it.

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by knowledge of official languages and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Share of labour force Unemployment rate
  No English No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born - - 6% 6%
Immigrants 6% 16% 8% 9%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 13% 5% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 16% 9% 10%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 20% 15% 16%
Men
Canadian-born - - 7% 7%
Immigrants 5% 14% 8% 8%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 9% 5% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 12% 9% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 17% 12% 13%
Total
Canadian-born - - 6% 6%
Immigrants 5% 15% 8% 8%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 11% 5% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 14% 9% 9%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 18% 14% 14%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Share of men and women with jobs increases with length of stay

Three in four Canadian-born women aged 15 to 64 are employed, compared to less than one-half of very recent immigrant women. For men the difference is smaller: eight in ten Canadian-born men are employed, compared to six in ten very recent immigrant men. As shown in the previous pages, these differences in employment rates reflect mainly differences in labour force participation rates.

Table D-13: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed, 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 52,370 145,850 84,680 282,890
Immigrants 15,280 93,470 70,040 178,790
 Immigrated before 1986 2,110 32,840 48,600 83,550
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8,160 38,790 16,160 63,110
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5,010 21,840 5,290 32,140
Men
Canadian-born 51,640 163,110 95,780 310,520
Immigrants 15,040 95,170 84,020 194,230
 Immigrated before 1986 2,200 34,430 56,300 92,930
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8,550 37,470 19,420 65,440
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,310 23,280 8,300 35,880
Total
Canadian-born 104,010 308,960 180,460 593,420
Immigrants 30,320 188,640 154,060 373,020
 Immigrated before 1986 4,300 67,270 104,900 176,460
 Immigrated 1986-1995 16,720 76,260 35,570 128,540
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9,320 45,120 13,600 68,030

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-14: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 60% 80% 70% 72% 282,890
Immigrants 41% 66% 57% 59% 178,790
 Immigrated before 1986 63% 79% 65% 69% 83,550
 Immigrated 1986-1995 41% 68% 49% 57% 63,110
 Immigrated 1996-2001 35% 52% 37% 46% 32,140
Men
Canadian-born 57% 87% 80% 78% 310,520
Immigrants 38% 80% 72% 71% 194,230
 Immigrated before 1986 58% 86% 78% 80% 92,930
 Immigrated 1986-1995 38% 81% 67% 67% 65,440
 Immigrated 1996-2001 31% 72% 56% 59% 35,880
Total
Canadian-born 58% 83% 75% 75% 593,420
Immigrants 39% 73% 65% 65% 373,020
 Immigrated before 1986 61% 82% 71% 75% 176,460
 Immigrated 1986-1995 40% 74% 57% 62% 128,540
 Immigrated 1996-2001 33% 61% 47% 52% 68,030

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Among immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is more common than among the more recently landed, but not quite as common as among the Canadian-born. For men and women aged 25 to 44 and 45 to 64 years, the employment rate of immigrants who landed before 1986 is one to five percentage points lower than the employment rate of the Canadian-born.

In 2001, employment was higher among the very recent immigrant cohort than in 1996.

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs more common for very recent immigrants aged 25 to 64

The proportion of employed persons who work part-time varies considerably by age and gender, both for immigrants and the Canadian-born. More than one-half of employed young adults work part-time. About one-quarter of employed women aged 25 to 64, not including very recent immigrants, work part-time, varying by cohort, while 8% to 15% of employed men aged 25 to 64 work part-time, again varying by cohort.

Table D-15: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—age and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 37,930 40,410 24,520 102,850
Immigrants 11,030 23,800 20,370 55,190
 Immigrated before 1986 1,300 7,730 13,800 22,820
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6,750 10,310 4,830 21,880
 Immigrated 1996-1999 2,980 5,770 1,750 10,490
Men
Canadian-born 32,650 15,250 9,250 57,150
Immigrants 9,700 9,440 10,330 29,460
 Immigrated before 1986 1,160 3,100 5,670 9,920
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6,150 3,980 3,200 13,320
 Immigrated 1996-1999 2,400 2,370 1,460 6,230
Total
Canadian-born 70,580 55,670 33,760 160,010
Immigrants 20,730 33,240 30,690 84,650
 Immigrated before 1986 2,460 10,820 19,470 32,750
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12,900 14,280 8,020 35,190
 Immigrated 1996-1999 5,380 8,140 3,200 16,710

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Table D-16: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed working mostly part-time, by age and gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 60% 25% 27% 33%
Immigrants 62% 24% 27% 29%
 Immigrated before 1986 52% 22% 26% 25%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 65% 24% 27% 31%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 61% 29% 32% 35%
Men
Canadian-born 51% 9% 9% 17%
Immigrants 55% 10% 12% 14%
 Immigrated before 1986 42% 8% 9% 10%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 58% 10% 15% 18%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 55% 12% 18% 19%
Total
Canadian-born 55% 17% 17% 24%
Immigrants 58% 17% 18% 21%
 Immigrated before 1986 47% 15% 17% 17%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 61% 17% 20% 24%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 58% 20% 24% 27%

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Part-time employment is more common for very recent immigrants aged 25 to 44 or 45 to 64 than for other population groups, but this is not so for those aged 15 to 24.

The share of jobs that were part-time in 2000 was similar to that in 1995 for all groups, with a modest increase in the rate of part-time employment among the 15-24 year age group.

Many recent immigrants in sales and services and processing occupations

Employed recent immigrants are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in sales and service and processing jobs. One-third of employed recent immigrant women work in sales and service jobs, compared to just over one-fifth of Canadian-born women. The differences are greater for women than for men. Jobs in processing are also more common among recent immigrants than among the Canadian-born. By contrast, management and social occupations, which are favoured by the Canadian-born, account for a smaller share of the jobs of earlier and recent immigrants.

Table D-17: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Processing Admin-
istrative
Management and social sciences Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 46,140 4,080 78,870 68,870 3,530 29,050 230,530
Immigrants 48,300 12,230 44,860 33,370 3,360 21,400 163,520
 Immigrated
 before 1986
21,170 4,380 24,830 18,240 1,700 11,100 81,450
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
17,720 5,210 13,750 9,970 1,230 7,040 54,950
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
9,390 2,630 6,270 5,160 440 3,250 27,130
Men
Canadian-born 43,560 15,750 29,330 74,350 61,250 34,660 258,890
Immigrants 35,490 15,830 18,220 43,040 38,060 28,570 179,190
 Immigrated
 before 1986
15,790 7,400 9,430 23,320 20,900 13,930 90,730
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
12,610 5,330 5,600 12,710 12,500 8,150 56,890
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
7,100 3,110 3,200 7,030 4,660 6,510 31,580
Total
Canadian-born 89,690 19,840 108,200 143,210 64,770 63,710 489,420
Immigrants 83,780 28,060 63,070 76,410 41,420 49,970 342,700
 Immigrated
 before 1986
36,980 11,780 34,250 41,560 22,590 25,030 172,160
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
30,340 10,560 19,360 22,670 13,730 15,190 111,830
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
16,480 5,730 9,460 12,180 5,100 9,760 58,710
 
Women
Canadian-born 20% 2% 34% 30% 2% 13% 230,530
Immigrants 30% 7% 27% 20% 2% 13% 163,520
 Immigrated
 before 1986
26% 5% 30% 22% 2% 14% 81,450
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
32% 9% 25% 18% 2% 13% 54,950
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
35% 10% 23% 19% 2% 12% 27,130
Men
Canadian-born 17% 6% 11% 29% 24% 13% 258,890
Immigrants 20% 9% 10% 24% 21% 16% 179,190
 Immigrated
 before 1986
17% 8% 10% 26% 23% 15% 90,730
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
22% 9% 10% 22% 22% 14% 56,890
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
22% 10% 10% 22% 15% 21% 31,580
Total
Canadian-born 18% 4% 22% 29% 13% 13% 489,420
Immigrants 24% 8% 18% 22% 12% 15% 342,700
 Immigrated
 before 1986
21% 7% 20% 24% 13% 15% 172,160
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
27% 9% 17% 20% 12% 14% 111,830
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
28% 10% 16% 21% 9% 17% 58,710

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-3, women

Figure D-3, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The distribution of occupations of very recent immigrants is quite similar to that of earlier cohorts, with two exceptions: a higher proportion of very recent immigrants than earlier immigrants work in health and science fields, especially among male immigrants, and a smaller share work in trades and transport. This is something specific to the latest cohort, as five years earlier in the 1996 Census the prevalence of health and science occupations among employed immigrants was quite similar across all cohorts, including very recent immigrants.

There are probably many factors that contribute to these patterns, including the selection of immigrants (reflecting both government policies and the demand for skills from industry) and their level of education and field of studies.

Many recent immigrants in the hospitality sector, few in the public sector

Compared to their Canadian-born counterparts, a larger proportion of recent immigrants in Vancouver aged 25 to 64 are employed in manufacturing, trade, business services, hospitality and other services industries. By contrast, construction and transportation industries and the public sector account for a smaller share of jobs of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born.

Compared to 1996, employment in business services industries among the very recent immigrant cohort is more prevalent, and employment in hospitality and other services industries is less prevalent.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-4, women

Figure D-4, men


Table D-18: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector by gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Con-
struction and Trans-
portation
Trade Business services Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 13,530 19,600 32,390 47,050 88,550 29,440 230,500
Immigrants 18,330 9,230 24,600 30,720 47,620 33,030 163,500
 Immigrated
 before 1986
7,370 5,260 11,010 15,650 28,360 13,800 81,400
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
7,380 2,790 8,820 10,020 13,560 12,390 54,900
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
3,560 1,200 4,760 5,050 5,710 6,850 27,100
Men
Canadian-born 33,980 62,470 45,060 48,550 40,620 28,230 258,900
Immigrants 30,400 35,270 32,640 34,680 20,430 25,790 179,200
 Immigrated
 before 1986
15,230 19,450 15,180 16,830 12,950 11,070 90,700
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
9,730 11,410 11,140 10,070 5,070 9,510 56,900
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
5,450 4,410 6,340 7,800 2,400 5,210 31,600
Total
Canadian-born 47,500 82,060 77,440 95,590 129,160 57,670 489,400
Immigrants 48,720 44,500 57,230 65,390 68,050 58,810 342,700
 Immigrated
 before 1986
22,600 24,710 26,200 32,490 41,330 24,870 172,200
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
17,130 14,180 19,950 20,050 18,630 21,890 111,800
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
9,000 5,600 11,100 12,850 8,100 12,050 58,700
 
Women
Canadian-born 6% 9% 14% 20% 38% 13% 100%
Immigrants 11% 6% 15% 19% 29% 20% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
9% 6% 14% 19% 35% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
13% 5% 16% 18% 25% 23% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
13% 4% 18% 19% 21% 25% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 13% 24% 17% 19% 16% 11% 100%
Immigrants 17% 20% 18% 19% 11% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
17% 21% 17% 19% 14% 12% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
17% 20% 20% 18% 9% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
17% 14% 20% 25% 8% 17% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 10% 17% 16% 20% 26% 12% 100%
Immigrants 14% 13% 17% 19% 20% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
13% 14% 15% 19% 24% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
15% 13% 18% 18% 17% 20% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
15% 10% 19% 22% 14% 21% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Skill requirements of jobs of recent immigrant women lower

The jobs of recent immigrants require lower skills than the jobs of the Canadian-born. One-third of jobs held by Canadian-born women require the highest level of skill, a university education. For immigrant women who landed after 1995, one-quarter of jobs require a university education. There is a larger gap between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born in the skill requirements of their jobs for women than for men.

Table D-19: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 12,840 73,370 66,260 78,060 230,530
Immigrants 22,230 57,330 40,580 43,380 163,520
 Immigrated before 1986 9,320 26,550 21,960 23,620 81,450
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8,410 20,430 13,000 13,110 54,940
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,510 10,350 5,640 6,640 27,130
Men
Canadian-born 18,660 63,030 82,700 94,500 258,890
Immigrants 19,030 44,160 53,530 62,460 179,190
 Immigrated before 1986 7,960 21,150 29,120 32,490 90,730
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6,960 15,020 16,930 17,980 56,890
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4,120 7,980 7,480 12,000 31,580
Total
Canadian-born 31,500 136,400 148,960 172,560 489,420
Immigrants 41,260 101,500 94,110 105,840 342,700
 Immigrated before 1986 17,280 47,720 51,070 56,120 172,170
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15,350 35,460 29,930 31,090 111,830
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8,630 18,330 13,110 18,640 58,710
 
Women
Canadian-born 6% 32% 29% 34% 100%
Immigrants 14% 35% 25% 27% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 33% 27% 29% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15% 37% 24% 24% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 17% 38% 21% 24% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 7% 24% 32% 37% 100%
Immigrants 11% 25% 30% 35% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 23% 32% 36% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 26% 30% 32% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 25% 24% 38% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 6% 28% 30% 35% 100%
Immigrants 12% 30% 27% 31% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 10% 28% 30% 33% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 32% 27% 28% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15% 31% 22% 32% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

For most men and women, the skill requirements of jobs of earlier immigrants are closer to those of the Canadian-born, which may mean that the situation of immigrants approaches the situation of the Canadian-born as their stay in Canada lengthens. However, very recent immigrant men are employed in jobs at the highest skill level to a greater extent than earlier immigrants.

The information presented in Table D-19 does not directly indicate whether the skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels of jobs of employed recent immigrants with the level of education of employed recent immigrants. This is done in Table D-20 for persons holding a university degree, and can be done in the same way for other levels of educational attainment.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-5, women

Figure D-5, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Education of recent immigrants not fully utilized

The jobs of recent immigrants with a university degree do not require the same level of skill as the jobs of Canadian-born persons with a university degree. Seven in ten employed Canadian-born women with a university degree have a job requiring a university degree. But only four in ten employed women who immigrated after 1995 have a job that requires a university degree. Just under three-quarters of Canadian-born men with a university degree, but just over one-half of very recent immigrant men have a job requiring a university education.

Table D-20: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs by gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 590 7,290 11,140 42,280 61,290
Immigrants 2,690 10,950 9,440 23,220 46,280
 Immigrated before 1986 510 3,250 3,890 11,690 19,330
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,030 4,090 3,190 7,110 15,410
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,170 3,610 2,360 4,420 11,540
Men
Canadian-born 1,230 6,070 10,620 47,570 65,470
Immigrants 2,930 8,430 10,580 35,140 57,080
 Immigrated before 1986 660 2,720 4,090 16,750 24,200
 Immigrated 1986-1995 930 2,810 3,600 9,890 17,220
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,340 2,910 2,910 8,510 15,660
Total
Canadian-born 1,810 13,360 21,750 89,840 126,760
Immigrants 5,610 19,380 20,010 58,360 103,360
 Immigrated before 1986 1,170 5,960 7,980 28,440 43,520
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,960 6,900 6,790 16,990 32,630
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,500 6,520 5,260 12,920 27,200
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 12% 18% 69% 100%
Immigrants 6% 24% 20% 50% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 17% 20% 60% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 27% 21% 46% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 31% 20% 38% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 2% 9% 16% 73% 100%
Immigrants 5% 15% 19% 62% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 11% 17% 69% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 16% 21% 57% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 19% 19% 54% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 1% 11% 17% 71% 100%
Immigrants 5% 19% 19% 56% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 14% 18% 65% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 21% 21% 52% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 24% 19% 48% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates with jobs requiring university education, by gender, Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary

The skill requirements of jobs of university graduates were somewhat higher in 2001 than in 1996, with an increase in the proportion of university graduates holding university-level jobs, and a decline in the proportion holding high school–level jobs. Recent immigrants shared in this development. For both Canadian-born and very recent immigrant men, the proportion of university graduates holding jobs requiring college or trade diplomas and below was five percentage points lower than in 1996, and the proportion of university graduates holding jobs requiring a university degree was five percentage points higher than in 1996. Immigrant men who had been in the country more than 15 years or from 5 to 15 years experienced a smaller shift of approximately two points. For very recent immigrant women, the shift from jobs requiring no more than high school to jobs requiring college or university was seven percentage points. For the women that had been in the country for 5 to 15 years, the change was five percentage points.

Date Modified: