Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Victoria—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower among very recent immigrants

Very recent immigrants are generally not as active in the labour market as the Canadian-born. The difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born aged 15 to 64 is sixteen percentage points for women and four percentage points for men. Labour force participation of immigrants who have been in Canada for a longer period of time is more like that of the Canadian-born. Men aged 25 to 44 are engaged in the labour force in high proportions shortly after arrival. As well, men who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period participated at higher rates than other men.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 12,540 31,840 21,800 66,170
Immigrants 910 5,840 7,460 14,210
 Immigrated before 1986 290 3,120 6,550 9,950
 Immigrated 1986-1995 440 1,910 730 3,070
 Immigrated 1996-2001 190 820 190 1,200
Men
Canadian-born 12,530 32,230 22,780 67,540
Immigrants 830 5,600 8,140 14,570
 Immigrated before 1986 250 3,090 6,990 10,320
 Immigrated 1986-1995 360 1,640 870 2,870
 Immigrated 1996-2001 220 860 280 1,360
Total
Canadian-born 25,070 64,060 44,560 133,690
Immigrants 1,730 11,440 15,600 28,770
 Immigrated before 1986 530 6,210 13,540 20,270
 Immigrated 1986-1995 800 3,560 1,600 5,950
 Immigrated 1996-2001 410 1,690 470 2,560

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 69% 84% 72% 77% 66,170
Immigrants 66% 79% 67% 72% 14,210
 Immigrated before 1986 84% 84% 68% 72% 9,950
 Immigrated 1986-1995 66% 79% 67% 74% 3,070
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50% 66% 55% 61% 1,200
Men
Canadian-born 68% 91% 80% 82% 67,540
Immigrants 60% 91% 81% 83% 14,570
 Immigrated before 1986 78% 90% 81% 83% 10,320
 Immigrated 1986-1995 55% 94% 86% 84% 2,870
 Immigrated 1996-2001 53% 90% 75% 78% 1,360
Total
Canadian-born 69% 88% 76% 80% 133,690
Immigrants 63% 85% 74% 77% 28,770
 Immigrated before 1986 82% 87% 74% 78% 20,270
 Immigrated 1986-1995 60% 86% 76% 79% 5,950
 Immigrated 1996-2001 51% 76% 67% 69% 2,560

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-1, women

Figure D-1, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education, the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three cohorts of immigrants, with only a few exceptions.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area 2001 (number)
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree
Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,100 18,190 22,920 14,960 66,170
Immigrants 2,010 3,000 5,160 4,060 14,210
 Immigrated before 1986 1,370 2,010 3,750 2,800 9,950
 Immigrated 1986-1995 490 680 1,080 840 3,070
 Immigrated 1996-2001 150 310 330 410 1,200
Men
Canadian-born 530 12,720 17,380 22,860 67,540
Immigrants 380 1,720 2,650 5,110 14,570
 Immigrated before 1986 220 1,160 1,790 3,880 10,320
 Immigrated 1986-1995 150 390 600 830 2,870
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40 160 250 400 1,360
Total
Canadian-born 800 22,540 35,570 45,780 133,690
Immigrants 700 3,390 5,640 10,260 28,770
 Immigrated before 1986 420 2,360 3,790 7,640 20,270
 Immigrated 1986-1995 250 750 1,290 1,900 5,950
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50 290 550 730 2,560

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree
Total
Women
Canadian-born 57% 79% 82% 86% 77%
Immigrants 55% 71% 76% 79% 72%
Immigrated before 1986 55% 71% 75% 82% 72%
Immigrated 1986-1995 58% 75% 81% 77% 74%
Immigrated 1996-2001 42% 63% 66% 63% 61%
Men
Canadian-born 67% 85% 88% 89% 82%
Immigrants 71% 83% 86% 87% 83%
Immigrated before 1986 74% 86% 84% 86% 83%
Immigrated 1986-1995 68% 82% 91% 93% 84%
Immigrated 1996-2001 60% 68% 90% 84% 78%
Total
Canadian-born 62% 82% 85% 87% 80%
Immigrants 62% 76% 80% 83% 77%
Immigrated before 1986 63% 77% 80% 84% 78%
Immigrated 1986-1995 62% 78% 85% 85% 79%
Immigrated 1996-2001 50% 65% 78% 74% 69%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

For most education levels there is a pattern of relatively low participation rates for the most recently landed immigrants, and convergence to the rates of the Canadian-born with longer stay. However, there are a few examples where immigrants who landed six to fifteen years before the census have rates higher than those of earlier immigrants, and in the case of men with post-secondary education, than those of the Canadian-born.

Labour force participation by recent immigrants has changed little overall since 1996.

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-2, women

Figure D-2, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Unemployment not uncommon during initial years

Immigrants who are in their initial years in Canada are somewhat more likely to experience unemployment than those who have been in the country for a longer period of time. For instance, recent immigrant women in Victoria experienced unemployment rates from 8% to 20%, depending on their age group, and men experienced unemployment rates of 7% to 22%, depending on their age group. Unemployment is significantly lower among persons who immigrated before 1986, comparable to that of the Canadian-born.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,590 1,600 780 3,960
Immigrants 160 380 350 890
 Immigrated before 1986 40 150 270 450
 Immigrated 1986-2001 130 230 80 430
Men
Canadian-born 1,970 2,060 1,080 5,110
Immigrants 160 320 380 850
 Immigrated before 1986 40 140 280 460
 Immigrated 1986-2001 130 190 90 400
Total
Canadian-born 3,560 3,660 1,850 9,060
Immigrants 320 710 720 1,740
 Immigrated before 1986 70 310 540 910
 Immigrated 1986-2001 250 410 180 830

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by age and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 13% 5% 4% 6% 3,960
Immigrants 18% 7% 5% 6% 890
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 5% 4% 5% 450
 Immigrated 1986-2001 20% 8% 9% 10% 430
Men
Canadian-born 16% 6% 5% 8% 5,110
Immigrants 19% 6% 5% 6% 850
 Immigrated before 1986 14% 5% 4% 4% 460
 Immigrated 1986-2001 22% 7% 8% 9% 400
Total
Canadian-born 14% 6% 4% 7% 9,060
Immigrants 18% 6% 5% 6% 1,740
 Immigrated before 1986 12% 5% 4% 4% 910
 Immigrated 1986-2001 20% 8% 8% 10% 830

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The unemployment rate has remained the same or declined by a few percentage points since 1996 for all three cohorts of immigrants and the Canadian-born, although for young recent immigrant men the decline was greater.

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,070 1,150 1,170 580 3,960
Immigrants 130 200 280 280 890
 Immigrated before 1986 50 110 180 140 450
 Immigrated 1986-2001 110 110 110 130 430
Men
Canadian-born 1,630 1,500 1,310 680 5,110
Immigrants 140 160 340 220 850
 Immigrated before 1986 70 80 210 90 460
 Immigrated 1986-2001 60 100 130 110 400
Total
Canadian-born 2,700 2,640 2,470 1,260 9,060
Immigrants 260 360 620 490 1,740
 Immigrated before 1986 130 170 370 240 910
 Immigrated 1986-2001 80 110 110 110 410

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by level of education and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  No high school diploma High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 11% 6% 5% 4% 6%
Immigrants 6% 7% 5% 7% 6%
Immigrated before 1986 4% 5% 5% 5% 5%
Immigrated 1986-2001 17% 11% 8% 10% 10%
Men
Canadian-born 12% 9% 6% 5% 8%
Immigrants 7% 6% 7% 5% 6%
Immigrated before 1986 5% 4% 5% 3% 4%
Immigrated 1986-2001 8% 11% 10% 8% 9%
Total
Canadian-born 12% 7% 5% 4% 7%
Immigrants 6% 6% 6% 6% 6%
Immigrated before 1986 5% 4% 5% 4% 4%
Immigrated 1986-2001 8% 8% 6% 6% 7%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

For the Canadian-born, the unemployment rate varies inversely with the level of education. For immigrants there is no such pattern.

Unemployment rates are generally lower for immigrant cohorts who have been in the country for a longer period of time. For instance, men who immigrated after 1985 and who have a high school diploma have an unemployment rate of 11%. The rate drops to 4% for immigrants who landed before 1986.

In 2001, the unemployment rate was slightly lower than in 1996 for most groups.

Share of men and women with jobs increases with length of stay

Seven in ten Canadian-born women aged 15 to 64 are employed, compared to one-half of very recent immigrant women who are employed. For men the difference is smaller: three in four Canadian-born men and two in three very recent immigrant men are employed. As shown in the previous pages, these differences in employment rates reflect mainly differences in labour force participation rates.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,940 30,240 21,010 62,190
Immigrants 750 5,460 7,120 13,320
 Immigrated before 1986 250 2,950 6,290 9,490
 Immigrated 1986-1995 350 1,800 690 2,830
 Immigrated 1996-2001 150 720 140 1,010
Men
Canadian-born 10,560 30,170 21,700 62,430
Immigrants 680 5,280 7,770 13,720
 Immigrated before 1986 220 2,960 6,700 9,870
 Immigrated 1986-1995 340 1,570 820 2,720
 Immigrated 1996-2001 130 760 240 1,130
Total
Canadian-born 21,510 60,410 42,710 124,620
Immigrants 1,420 10,740 14,880 27,030
 Immigrated before 1986 460 5,910 13,000 19,360
 Immigrated 1986-1995 680 3,360 1,510 5,540
 Immigrated 1996-2001 280 1,480 380 2,130

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 60% 80% 70% 72% 62,190
Immigrants 54% 74% 64% 67% 13,320
 Immigrated before 1986 74% 79% 65% 69% 9,490
 Immigrated 1986-1995 53% 75% 64% 68% 2,830
 Immigrated 1996-2001 39% 58% 42% 51% 1,010
Men
Canadian-born 58% 86% 76% 76% 62,430
Immigrants 49% 86% 77% 78% 13,720
 Immigrated before 1986 68% 86% 77% 80% 9,870
 Immigrated 1986-1995 51% 90% 81% 80% 2,720
 Immigrated 1996-2001 31% 79% 64% 65% 1,130
Total
Canadian-born 59% 83% 73% 74% 124,620
Immigrants 51% 79% 70% 72% 27,030
 Immigrated before 1986 71% 83% 71% 74% 19,360
 Immigrated 1986-1995 51% 81% 72% 73% 5,540
 Immigrated 1996-2001 35% 67% 54% 57% 2,130

Note: Tables D-1 to D-10 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Among immigrants who landed before 1986, employment is generally more common than among the more recently landed. Immigrants who have lived in the country for 15 years or more have unemployment rates generally comparable to the Canadian-born. Immigrant men aged 25 to 64 who landed in 1986-1995 have employment levels higher than the Canadian-born.

In 2001, employment was significantly lower than in 1995 among very recent immigrants, while it was significantly higher among immigrants who landed five to fifteen years before the census. This is in contrast to most other cities in Canada, where a larger share of very recent immigrants was employed in 2001 than in 1996.

The jobs of recent immigrants

Part-time jobs more common for very recent immigrants aged 25 to 64

The proportion of employed persons who work part-time varies considerably by age and gender, both for immigrants and the Canadian-born. More than half of employed young adults work part-time. Less than one-third of employed women aged 25 to 64 work part-time, while for men, not including very recent immigrants, the share is just over one in ten.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—by age and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 7,920 9,440 6,440 23,800
Immigrants 500 1,700 2,370 4,570
 Immigrated before 1986 170 900 2,070 3,140
 Immigrated 1986-1995 270 620 270 1,160
 Immigrated 1996-1999 60 180 40 280
Men
Canadian-born 6,690 3,410 2,700 12,790
Immigrants 370 610 1,130 2,100
 Immigrated before 1986 80 340 970 1,380
 Immigrated 1986-1995 210 170 100 480
 Immigrated 1996-1999 90 110 60 250
Total
Canadian-born 14,600 12,850 9,150 36,590
Immigrants 870 2,340 3,490 6,700
 Immigrated before 1986 250 1,260 3,040 4,540
 Immigrated 1986-1995 470 800 360 1,630
 Immigrated 1996-1999 150 290 100 540

Note: Tables D-11 and D-12 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed working mostly part-time, by age and gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 59% 29% 28% 35%
Immigrants 63% 29% 30% 32%
 Immigrated before 1986 62% 29% 30% 30%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 68% 30% 36% 36%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 48% 31% 28% 33%
Men
Canadian-born 51% 10% 12% 18%
Immigrants 49% 11% 14% 15%
 Immigrated before 1986 31% 11% 13% 13%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 55% 10% 12% 16%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 65% 17% 32% 26%
Total
Canadian-born 55% 20% 20% 26%
Immigrants 56% 21% 22% 23%
 Immigrated before 1986 48% 20% 21% 22%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 61% 21% 22% 27%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 60% 24% 31% 30%

Note: Tables D-11 and D-12 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Part-time employment is more common for very recent immigrant men who are over 24 years of age than for other men except those aged 15 to 24. For very recent immigrant women the situation is different, with part-time employment levels comparable to those of previous immigrants and the Canadian-born.

The prevalence of part-time employment was lower in 2000 than in 1995 for very recent immigrant women by four to eighteen percentage points. By contrast, very recent immigrant men have seen a rise in part-time work in the order of three to fourteen percentage points.

Many recent immigrants in sales and service occupations

Employed immigrants are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in sales and services occupations. One-third of employed very recent immigrants work in sales and service jobs, compared to two in ten of the Canadian-born. The difference between immigrants and the Canadian-born is greater for women than for men. Recent immigrants are less frequently employed than the Canadian-born in administrative occupations, in the case of women, and in trades and transport occupations, in the case of men. However, immigrants who have been in the country 15 years or more are more likely to work in high skill occupations such as management and social occupations than the Canadian-born.

The distribution of occupations of very recent immigrants is quite similar to that of earlier cohorts, with two exceptions: a higher share of very recent immigrant men work in the health and science field and a lower share work in sales and services occupations. This is something specific to the latest cohort, as five years earlier the share of jobs in health occupations was lower among the male very recent immigrant cohort.

Table D-13: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups by gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Processing Admin-
istrative
Management and social sciences Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,950 830 16,830 14,140 640 7,860 51,250
Immigrants 3,370 230 3,150 3,610 200 2,010 12,570
 Immigrated
 before 1986
2,190 150 2,400 2,890 150 1,440 9,230
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
840 60 560 530 60 430 2,480
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
350 20 180 190 0 120 860
Men
Canadian-born 10,610 2,730 5,250 13,630 11,160 8,500 51,860
Immigrants 2,670 650 1,430 3,690 2,370 2,230 13,040
 Immigrated
 before 1986
1,650 430 1,180 2,820 1,880 1,660 9,670
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
730 160 160 610 390 360 2,380
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
270 40 90 270 110 220 1,000
Total
Canadian-born 21,560 3,550 22,080 27,790 11,800 16,350 103,120
Immigrants 6,040 890 4,580 7,290 2,580 4,240 25,610
 Immigrated
 before 1986
3,850 600 3,600 5,730 2,030 3,090 18,900
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
1,580 200 720 1,140 440 780 4,860
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
620 80 270 450 110 350 1,860
 
Women
Canadian-born 21% 2% 33% 28% 1% 15% 100%
Immigrants 27% 2% 25% 29% 2% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
24% 2% 26% 31% 2% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
34% 2% 23% 21% 2% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
40% 2% 21% 22% 0% 14% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 20% 5% 10% 26% 22% 16% 100%
Immigrants 20% 5% 11% 28% 18% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
17% 4% 12% 29% 19% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
31% 7% 7% 26% 16% 15% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
27% 4% 9% 27% 11% 22% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 21% 3% 21% 27% 11% 16% 100%
Immigrants 24% 3% 18% 28% 10% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
20% 3% 19% 30% 11% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
32% 4% 15% 23% 9% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
33% 4% 14% 24% 6% 19% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups, by gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-3, women

Figure D-3, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Many recent immigrants in hospitality and other services, few in public sector

In Victoria, relative to the Canadian-born, a large proportion of employed recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 work in hospitality and other services industries and, for men, in business services industries. The Canadian-born are more likely than recent immigrants to work in construction and transportation industries and in the public sector.

Compared to 1996, very recent immigrant men hold more jobs in business services industries, and fewer jobs in the public sector and hospitality and other services industries.

Table D-14: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, employed, 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector by gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Con-
struction and Trans-
portation
Trade Business services Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,920 2,410 6,150 7,750 26,830 6,190 51,300
Immigrants 510 360 1,540 1,820 5,920 2,440 12,600
 Immigrated
 before 1986
310 270 1,060 1,340 4,580 1,600 9,200
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
120 40 320 340 1,050 590 2,500
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
50 20 130 120 280 250 900
Men
Canadian-born 4,270 10,220 7,890 7,750 16,310 5,440 51,900
Immigrants 1,050 1,990 1,890 2,270 3,750 2,100 13,000
 Immigrated
 before 1986
740 1,620 1,260 1,630 3,040 1,370 9,700
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
220 290 470 380 550 490 2,400
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
100 80 160 260 160 240 1,000
Total
Canadian-born 6,190 12,630 14,050 15,500 43,130 11,630 103,100
Immigrants 1,570 2,330 3,440 4,100 9,660 4,540 25,600
 Immigrated
 before 1986
1,090 1,920 2,340 2,970 7,600 2,980 18,900
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
310 340 790 720 1,620 1,080 4,900
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
140 100 300 400 440 500 1,900
 
Women
Canadian-born 4% 5% 12% 15% 52% 12% 100%
Immigrants 4% 3% 12% 14% 47% 19% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
3% 3% 11% 15% 50% 17% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
5% 1% 13% 14% 42% 24% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
5% 2% 15% 13% 32% 28% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 8% 20% 15% 15% 31% 10% 100%
Immigrants 8% 15% 14% 17% 29% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
8% 17% 13% 17% 31% 14% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
9% 12% 20% 16% 23% 20% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
10% 8% 16% 26% 16% 24% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 6% 12% 14% 15% 42% 11% 100%
Immigrants 6% 9% 13% 16% 38% 18% 100%
 Immigrated
 before 1986
6% 10% 12% 16% 40% 16% 100%
 Immigrated
 1986-1995
6% 7% 16% 15% 33% 22% 100%
 Immigrated
 1996-2001
7% 5% 16% 22% 24% 27% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-4, women

Figure D-4, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Skill requirements of jobs of recent immigrants somewhat lower

The jobs of recent immigrant men require about the same level of skill as the jobs of the Canadian-born, but recent immigrant women have jobs with somewhat lower skill levels. One in three jobs of Canadian-born women requires the highest level of skill, a university education. One-quarter of the jobs of very recent immigrant women require a university education. The share of jobs with the lowest level of skill is twice as high among recent immigrants as among the Canadian-born.

Table D-15: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 3,500 16,490 14,230 17,040 51,260
Immigrants 1,390 3,520 3,180 4,500 12,580
 Immigrated before 1986 870 2,450 2,400 3,540 9,240
 Immigrated 1986-1995 370 760 620 740 2,480
 Immigrated 1996-2001 160 310 170 220 860
Men
Canadian-born 4,360 12,350 16,720 18,440 51,860
Immigrants 1,170 2,620 3,980 5,280 13,040
 Immigrated before 1986 720 1,830 3,100 4,010 9,660
 Immigrated 1986-1995 320 570 650 840 2,380
 Immigrated 1996-2001 130 220 240 430 1,000
Total
Canadian-born 7,850 28,840 30,950 35,480 103,120
Immigrants 2,550 6,140 7,150 9,770 25,620
 Immigrated before 1986 1,590 4,280 5,500 7,560 18,910
 Immigrated 1986-1995 700 1,330 1,270 1,580 4,870
 Immigrated 1996-2001 280 530 400 650 1,860
 
Women
Canadian-born 7% 32% 28% 33% 100%
Immigrants 11% 28% 25% 36% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 26% 26% 38% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15% 31% 25% 30% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 19% 36% 20% 26% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 8% 24% 32% 36% 100%
Immigrants 9% 20% 30% 40% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 7% 19% 32% 42% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 13% 24% 27% 35% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 22% 24% 43% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 28% 30% 34% 100%
Immigrants 10% 24% 28% 38% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 8% 23% 29% 40% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 27% 26% 32% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15% 28% 22% 35% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The information presented in Table D-15 does not directly indicate whether the skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels of jobs of recent immigrants with the level of education of employed recent immigrants. This is done in Table D-16 for persons holding a university degree.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs by gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure D-5, women

Figure D-5, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Education of recent immigrant women not fully utilized

The jobs of very recent immigrants with a university degree do not require the same level of skill as the jobs of the Canadian-born persons with a university degree. Almost two-thirds of employed Canadian-born women with a university degree have a job requiring a university degree, but only 40% employed women with university degrees who immigrated after 1995 has a job that requires a university degree. Almost three-quarters of Canadian-born men with a university degree but only two-thirds of very recent immigrant men have a job requiring a university education.

Nearly half of very recent immigrant women with a university degree work in jobs requiring only a high school education or less. This is more than twice as large a share as the share of any other group.

Table D-16: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 320 2,020 2,580 8,610 13,540
Immigrants 130 550 620 2,420 3,710
 Immigrated before 1986 60 290 450 1,870 2,660
 Immigrated 1986-1995 40 140 140 430 730
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40 120 50 130 320
Men
Canadian-born 320 1,190 1,930 9,490 12,920
Immigrants 120 400 600 3,340 4,460
 Immigrated before 1986 60 210 410 2,480 3,150
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50 140 100 570 830
 Immigrated 1996-2001 40 60 90 300 470
Total
Canadian-born 650 3,210 4,500 18,100 26,450
Immigrants 260 940 1,220 5,760 8,170
 Immigrated before 1986 100 500 870 4,350 5,820
 Immigrated 1986-1995 90 280 230 990 1,580
 Immigrated 1996-2001 60 170 130 430 790
 
Women
Canadian-born 2% 15% 19% 64% 100%
Immigrants 3% 15% 17% 65% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 11% 17% 70% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 19% 18% 59% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 37% 14% 40% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 2% 9% 15% 73% 100%
Immigrants 3% 9% 13% 75% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 7% 13% 79% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 16% 11% 68% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 12% 18% 65% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 2% 12% 17% 68% 100%
Immigrants 3% 12% 15% 71% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 9% 15% 75% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 17% 15% 63% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 22% 17% 54% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-13 to D-16 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates with jobs requiring university education, by gender, Victoria Census Metropolitan Area, 2001

Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Date Modified: