Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Winnipeg—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part C: Families and Households

Family and household affiliation of individuals

Older recent immigrants more likely to be living with relatives

Very few recent immigrants live alone. Like the Canadian-born population, a large majority of recent immigrants live in households with at least two people, and in most cases, these are people with whom they are related by blood, marriage or adoption. In fact, recent immigrants are more likely than the Canadian-born population to live with relatives. This difference is seen in all age groups, but is most notable among people aged 65 and over. Among Canadian-born seniors in Winnipeg, less than two-thirds live with relatives, while more than one-third live alone. By comparison, nearly nine out of ten very recent immigrants aged 65 and over live with relatives, while only 13% live alone. In part, these figures probably reflect a difference in the average age of recent immigrant seniors and Canadian-born seniors.

Table C-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—living arrangements, by age, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born Immigrants Immigrated before 1986 Immigrated 1986-1995 Immigrated 1996-2001
All ages (including 0-14 years)
Living alone 66,980 13,580 11,300 1,600 690
Living with non-relatives only 20,280 2,240 1,300 640 300
Living with relatives 458,850 93,220 56,880 23,950 12,370
15-24 years
Living alone 3,860 290 70 130 100
Living with non-relatives only 6,210 320 90 160 70
Living with relatives 71,010 8,000 1,390 4,410 2,180
25-44 years
Living alone 21,900 2,780 1,460 850 470
Living with non-relatives only 9,310 1,060 500 370 190
Living with relatives 132,940 29,970 13,500 11,130 5,360
45-64 years
Living alone 18,840 3,670 3,200 420 70
Living with non-relatives only 2,990 610 510 100 30
Living with relatives 95,250 33,580 27,070 4,990 1,500
65 years and over
Living alone 22,380 6,850 6,560 220 60
Living with non-relatives only 690 240 220 20 0
Living with relatives 38,120 16,740 14,940 1,390 420
 
All ages (including 0-14 years)
Living alone 12% 12% 16% 6% 5%
Living with non-relatives only 4% 2% 2% 2% 2%
Living with relatives 84% 85% 82% 91% 93%
15-24 years
Living alone 5% 3% 4% 3% 4%
Living with non-relatives only 8% 4% 6% 3% 3%
Living with relatives 88% 93% 90% 94% 93%
25-44 years
Living alone 13% 8% 9% 7% 8%
Living with non-relatives only 6% 3% 3% 3% 3%
Living with relatives 81% 89% 87% 90% 89%
45-64 years
Living alone 16% 10% 10% 8% 4%
Living with non-relatives only 3% 2% 2% 2% 2%
Living with relatives 81% 89% 88% 91% 94%
65 years and over
Living alone 37% 29% 30% 14% 13%
Living with non-relatives only 1% 1% 1% 1% 0%
Living with relatives 62% 70% 69% 85% 88%

Note: For definitions of living arrangements and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Recent immigrants more likely to live in extended families

Recent immigrants are similar to Canadian-born individuals in that most live in nuclear families, with no relatives other than the immediate members of the nuclear family. However, recent immigrants are more likely than the Canadian-born population to live in extended family situations. Of the Canadian-born population living with one or more relatives, only 6% are part of an extended family. The proportion of recent immigrants in that kind of arrangement is nearly three times as large.

Figure C-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born— percentage living with relatives in an extended family, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

Figure C-1

Note: For definitions of extended and nuclear families, see the Glossary. Whereas Table C-1 includes all persons, Figure C-1 and Table C-2 include only persons who are living with relatives. A small percentage of individuals living with relatives are in “non-family” households. An example might be two adult brothers living together. The percentage of individuals in these situations is not shown in the table and figure in this section.

Older recent immigrants are most likely to live in an extended family. Four in ten of very recent immigrants aged 65 and over live in extended families, compared to 6% of Canadian-born seniors. Older recent immigrants living in extended families are most often related to someone within a nuclear family and are not members of the nuclear family itself.

Table C-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—living with relatives in nuclear or extended family, by age, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born Immigrants Immigrated before 1986 Immigrated 1986-1995 Immigrated 1996-2001
All ages
Nuclear family 425,220 79,160 49,630 19,320 10,230
Extended family 26,320 12,150 6,220 4,120 1,810
Under 15 years
Nuclear family 114,380 4,380 - 1,840 2,540
Extended family 6,760 520 - 195 325
15-24 years
Nuclear family 64,460 6,520 1,190 3,650 1,700
Extended family 5,110 1,120 130 630 360
25-44 years
Nuclear family 123,200 25,390 11,720 9,130 4,560
Extended family 7,440 4,060 1,600 1,790 670
45-64 years
Nuclear family 89,000 29,260 24,000 4,070 1,190
Extended family 4,670 3,840 2,710 820 300
65 years and over
Nuclear family 34,180 13,620 12,730 640 250
Extended family 2,360 2,630 1,790 700 170
 
All ages
Nuclear family 93% 85% 87% 81% 83%
Extended family 6% 13% 11% 17% 15%
Under 15 years
Nuclear family 94% 89% - 90% 87%
Extended family 6% 11% - 10% 11%
15-24 years
Nuclear family 91% 82% 85% 82% 78%
Extended family 7% 14% 9% 14% 16%
25-44 years
Nuclear family 93% 85% 87% 82% 85%
Extended family 6% 14% 12% 16% 12%
45-64 years
Nuclear family 93% 87% 89% 82% 79%
Extended family 5% 11% 10% 16% 20%
65 years and over
Nuclear family 90% 81% 85% 46% 60%
Extended family 6% 16% 12% 50% 40%

Note: For definitions of extended and nuclear families, see the Glossary. Whereas Table C-1 includes all persons, Figure C-1 and Table C-2 include only persons who are living with relatives. A small percentage of individuals living with relatives are in “non-family” households. An example might be two adult brothers living together. The percentage of individuals in these situations is not shown in the table and figure in this section. Consequently, the percentages in Table C-2 do not add to 100%.

Families

One in twelve families in Winnipeg is a recent immigrant family

In Winnipeg in 2001, there were 39,700 recent immigrants who landed in Canada between 1986 and 2001. A large majority of these immigrants—33,700 or 85%—were members of a nuclear family. In other words, they were husbands, wives, common-law partners, lone parents or children. Nearly one in twelve families in Winnipeg is a recent immigrant family—that is, a family in which either or both spouses or the lone parent are recent immigrants. This proportion is lower than for Canada as a whole, where one in nine families is a recent immigrant family.

Most of the recent immigrant families consist of married or common-law couples, while only 12% are lone-parent families. Among Canadian-born families, 19% are lone-parent families, while 81% are married or common-law couples.

Table C-3: Recent immigrant and Canadian-born families—family structure, by age of older spouse or lone parent, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born families Recent immigrant families
All families (including 15-24 years)
Couples with or without children 105,460 81% 12,810 88%
Lone-parent families 23,960 19% 1,770 12%
Total number of families 129,420 100% 14,570 100%
25-44 years
Couples with or without children 44,130 78% 7,850 88%
Lone-parent families 12,640 22% 1,030 12%
Total number of families 56,770 100% 8,880 100%
45-64 years
Couples with or without children 41,350 85% 3,890 89%
Lone-parent families 7,100 15% 500 11%
Total number of families 48,440 100% 4,390 100%
65 years and over
Couples with or without children 17,650 89% 830 84%
Lone-parent families 2,220 11% 160 16%
Total number of families 19,860 100% 990 100%

Note: For definitions of family and related concepts, see the Glossary. Since the 1996 Census there have been changes to the definition of family.

When families are grouped by the age of the oldest member, families of seniors are seen to have a composition different from the general pattern. Lone-parent families are more common among recent immigrant families of seniors, and less common among the families of Canadian-born seniors. The opposite is true for younger families.

Recent immigrant families more likely to have children in the home

Recent immigrant and Canadian-born families differ in the proportion of families with children at home. More than three in four recent immigrant families have at least one child of any age living at home. By comparison, just over six in ten Canadian-born families have children at home.

This difference occurs mainly among older families, when age of family is defined as the age of the oldest family member. Among young families, four in five have children, whether they are recent immigrants or Canadian-born. However, 41% of recent immigrant families of seniors have children in the home, compared to 21% of Canadian-born families.

Figure C-2: Recent immigrant and Canadian-born families—never-married children living at home, by age of older spouse or lone parent, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

Figure C-2

The higher proportion of older recent immigrant families with children living at home could be due to a greater likelihood that older children stay longer in the parental home, as well as possible differences in the timing of childbirth and level of fertility. Some of the children in older immigrant families may be adults living with and possibly supporting one or two aging parents.

Older recent immigrant families have more children living at home

Recent immigrant families with children are somewhat more likely to have more than two children in the home than Canadian-born families with children. As many as 23% of recent immigrant families with children have three or more children, compared to 17% of Canadian-born families.

The share of young families with children that have three or more children is the same for Canadian-born families and recent immigrant families, a little less than one in four. However, 26% of recent immigrant families whose older spouse or lone parent is 45 to 64 years old and that have children in the home have more than two children, compared to 14% of Canadian-born families in the same situation. Among the oldest recent immigrant families with children, 9% have three or more children living at home.

Table C-4: Recent immigrant and Canadian-born families—never-married children living at home, by age of older spouse or lone parent, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born families Recent immigrant families
All ages (including 15-24 years)
One child 35,770 44% 4,050 36%
Two children 32,190 39% 4,560 41%
Three or more children 14,120 17% 2,590 23%
25-44 years
One child 15,550 35% 2,470 34%
Two children 19,200 43% 3,050 43%
Three or more children 9,530 22% 1,650 23%
45-64 years
One child 14,620 47% 1,200 35%
Two children 11,890 38% 1,350 39%
Three or more children 4,380 14% 880 26%
65 years and over
One child 3,700 90% 270 65%
Two children 380 9% 110 26%
Three or more children 20 0% 40 9%

In majority of recent immigrant families, both spouses are recent immigrants

The majority of the 14,570 recent immigrant families are comprised of a recently immigrated husband married to or living common-law with a recently immigrated wife, with or without children. An additional 16% of families have a recently immigrated spouse and a spouse who immigrated before 1986. A total of 18% of recent immigrant families in Winnipeg have a recent immigrant paired with a Canadian-born spouse. Of the families of immigrants who landed before 1986, 41% consist of an immigrant paired with a Canadian-born spouse (not shown in Figure C-3).

Figure C-3: Recent immigrant families—family structure showing immigrant status of spouses, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)

Figure C-3

When recent immigrants enter into conjugal unions, they are very likely to do so as a legally married couple. Just 3% of recent immigrant couples live common-law, compared to 14% of Canadian-born couples. Even among younger couples, where common-law relationships are the clear preference of the Canadian-born, relatively few recent immigrant couples have chosen this option.

Table C-5: Recent immigrant and Canadian-born families—couples in common-law relationships, by age of older spouse, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born families Recent immigrant families
All ages 14,690 14% 280 3%
15-24 years 1,670 71% 40 36%
25-44 years 8,760 20% 160 3%
45-64 years 3,810 9% 70 3%
65 years and over 460 3% 10 2%

The low incidence of common-law relationships is in part a result of immigration law, which, prior to the introduction of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) in June 2002, did not recognize common-law relationships.

Households

One in 14 households is a recent immigrant household

In 2001, there were 18,040 recent immigrant households—households in which at least one member of 15 years or older was a recent immigrant. These made up 7% of the total number of households in Winnipeg.

One-third of recent immigrant households, or 6,090 households, have at least one member who immigrated after 1995. For a little less than one-half of these households, all members are very recent immigrants. The remaining 3,200 households consist of very recent immigrants living together with other persons. In 65% of these households the other persons are immigrants who landed before 1996, in 26% they are persons born in Canada and in 8% of these households the other persons are both persons born in Canada and immigrants who landed before 1996.

In three out of four households in Winnipeg all members are Canadian-born. Households that include one or more earlier immigrants but no recent immigrants account for 17% of households.

Table C-6: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Number of
households
Share of
all households
Canadian-born 205,120 76%
Earlier immigrants 45,820 17%
Recent immigrants 18,040 7%
 1986-1995 immigrants 11,950 4%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 3,200 1%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 2,890 1%
All households 269,990 100%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Recent immigrant households more likely to be larger than a nuclear family

A recent immigrant household is much more likely than a Canadian-born household to consist of one or more families. The large majority of recent immigrant households, four in five, are family households, compared to three in five Canadian-born households.

Nearly four out of ten Canadian-born households are non-family households, and most of these consist of a person living alone. Among more recent immigrant households, persons living alone are much rarer.

Most households consist of a nuclear family—that is, a couple with or without children or a lone parent with one or more children. Immigrant households, except for households of very recent immigrants with others, are somewhat more likely to consist of just a nuclear family than Canadian-born households.

A significant proportion of recent immigrant households consist of a nuclear family living with other persons. In most of these “expanded-family” households, the non-family person or persons are related to the family. Expanded-family households occur much less frequently among the Canadian-born.

Table C-7: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—household structure, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
    Family households Non-family households
Households All family house-
holds
Nuclear families Expanded families Multiple families Single person Multiple persons
Canadian-born 127,940 119,430 7,660 850 66,960 10,220
Earlier immigrants 33,120 30,010 2,540 580 11,300 1,400
Recent immigrants 14,810 11,480 2,220 1,110 2,290 950
 1986-1995 immigrants 9,730 7,790 1,400 550 1,600 630
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 3,030 1,790 710 540 0 190
 1996-2001 immigrants only 2,090 1,920 130 40 690 140
All households 176,240 161,270 12,440 2,540 81,020 12,740
 
Canadian-born 62% 58% 4% 0% 33% 5%
Earlier immigrants 72% 65% 6% 1% 25% 3%
Recent immigrants 82% 64% 12% 6% 13% 5%
 1986-1995 immigrants 81% 65% 12% 5% 13% 5%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 95% 56% 22% 17% 0% 6%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 72% 66% 4% 1% 24% 5%
All households 65% 60% 5% 1% 30% 5%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Households of recent immigrants are also much more likely than Canadian-born households to consist of two or more families. These families may be related to each other, as for example a married couple living with the family of one of their children. Multiple family households are most common among households combining very recent immigrants with other persons. Many recent immigrants clearly live in households that are different from the standard nuclear family.

Recent immigrant households tend to be large

Recent immigrant households are more likely to be large in size than Canadian-born and earlier immigrant households. A little more than half of recent immigrant households have one to three members, compared to eight out of ten Canadian-born households. The proportion of households with four or more members is more than twice as large among recent immigrant households as among Canadian-born households.

Table C-8: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—household size, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Number of persons in household Total
Households 1 to 3 4 or 5 6 or more
Canadian-born 162,100 39,370 3,660 205,120
Earlier immigrants 34,370 10,160 1,300 45,820
Recent immigrants 9,760 6,450 1,840 18,050
 1986-1995 immigrants 6,440 4,440 1,070 11,940
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 1,550 1,100 560 3,200
 1996-2001 immigrants only 1,780 920 200 2,900
All households 207,070 56,110 6,800 269,980
  Number of persons in household Estimated
average size
Households 1 to 3 4 or 5 6 or more
Canadian-born 79% 19% 2% 2.4
Earlier immigrants 75% 22% 3% 2.6
Recent immigrants 54% 36% 10% 3.5
 1986-1995 immigrants 54% 37% 9% 3.4
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 48% 34% 17% 3.9
 1996-2001 immigrants only 61% 32% 7% 3.1
All households 77% 21% 3% 2.5

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary. Average size is estimated assuming an average of 4.5 for households with four or five members and an average of 7 for households with six or more members. For households with one, two or three members, the actual size of household was used in the calculation.

Most of the larger recent immigrant households have four or five members. Households where very recent immigrants live together with other Canadians are most likely of all households to be large, with 17% of these households having six or more members. The share of equally large households among Canadian-born households is only 2%.

More care of children

The proportion of recent immigrants of 15 years of age or over reporting time spent on unpaid care of children is higher than the proportion of Canadian-born persons in the same category. On the other hand, a smaller share of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born reports spending time on a regular basis to look after elder persons.

Table C-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—reporting unpaid care of children or elders, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  Care of
  Children Elders
Women
Canadian-born 90,400 32% 50,790 18%
Immigrants 23,320 41% 10,180 18%
 Immigrated before 1986 13,420 37% 7,520 21%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6,700 50% 1,950 15%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 3,210 47% 710 10%
Men
Canadian-born 69,320 26% 33,820 13%
Immigrants 19,120 36% 7,630 14%
 Immigrated before 1986 11,350 34% 5,660 17%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5,340 41% 1,440 11%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,430 37% 540 8%
Total
Canadian-born 159,710 29% 84,610 15%
Immigrants 42,440 39% 17,810 16%
 Immigrated before 1986 24,770 36% 13,180 19%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12,040 46% 3,390 13%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5,630 42% 1,250 9%
Date Modified: