Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Winnipeg—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part F: Housing

Crowded accommodations more common for recent immigrants

In Winnipeg, the number of persons per room in households of recent immigrants is well above the average. As many as 21% of recent immigrant households live in crowded conditions (that is, there are more persons than rooms in the home). The incidence of crowding is even higher among households consisting only of very recent immigrants. By contrast, crowding is very rare among households of the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants.

Table F-1: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—persons per room, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
Households Fewer than 0.5 persons 0.5 to 0.74 persons 0.75 to 0.99 persons 1 or more persons Total
Canadian-born 133,280 55,800 8,750 7,290 205,110
Earlier immigrants 28,830 12,690 2,540 1,750 45,810
Recent immigrants 4,930 6,500 2,810 3,830 18,050
 1986-1995 immigrants 3,630 4,480 1,790 2,070 11,950
 1996-2001 immigrants with others  580 1,190 570 860 3,200
1996-2001 immigrants only 720 830 460 900 2,900
All households 167,460 75,270 14,160 13,100 269,990
 
Canadian-born 65% 27% 4% 4% 100%
Earlier immigrants 63% 28% 6% 4% 100%
Recent immigrants 27% 36% 16% 21% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 30% 37% 15% 17% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others  18% 37% 18% 27% 100%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 25% 29% 16% 31% 100%
All households 62% 28% 5% 5% 100%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household, crowding and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Large households likely to have crowded accommodations

Crowding is related to size of household. The larger the household, the greater the chance that there are more persons than rooms in the dwelling. This pattern is found among households of the Canadian-born as well as immigrants, despite the fact that there is much less crowding in households of the Canadian-born than in households of recent immigrants.

As shown earlier, households of immigrants who landed before 1986 are similar to the households of the Canadian-born in size. They also have accommodations that are similar in size to that of the Canadian-born.

Table F-2: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—persons per room by size of household, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
Type of household Fewer than 0.5 persons 0.5 to 0.74 persons 0.75 to 0.99 persons 1 or more persons Total
1 to 3 persons
Canadian-born 124,370 31,600 2,600 3,540 162,100
Earlier immigrants 26,920 6,370 530 560 34,370
Recent immigrants 4,410 3,450 840 1,050 9,760
 1986-1995 immigrants 3,220 2,220 450 550 6,440
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 540 620 220 160 1,550
 1996-2001 immigrants only 660 610 170 340 1,780
4 to 5 persons
Canadian-born 8,780 23,050 5,010 2,540 39,370
Earlier immigrants 1,890 6,010 1,550 720 10,160
Recent immigrants 510 2,750 1,480 1,720 6,450
 1986-1995 immigrants 400 2,050 1,020 970 4,440
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 50 500 210 350 1,100
 1996-2001 immigrants only 60 200 250 410 920
6 or more persons
Canadian-born 140 1,150 1,150 1,220 3,660
Earlier immigrants 40 330 460 480 1,300
Recent immigrants 0 280 490 1,070 1,840
 1986-1995 immigrants 0 200 320 550 1,070
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 0 60 140 380 560
 1996-2001 immigrants only 0 30 30 150 200
 
1 to 3 persons
Canadian-born 77% 19% 2% 2% 162,100
Earlier immigrants 78% 19% 2% 2% 34,370
Recent immigrants 45% 35% 9% 11% 9,760
 1986-1995 immigrants 50% 34% 7% 9% 6,440
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 35% 40% 14% 10% 1,550
 1996-2001 immigrants only 37% 34% 10% 19% 1,780
4 to 5 persons
Canadian-born 22% 59% 13% 6% 39,370
Earlier immigrants 19% 59% 15% 7% 10,160
Recent immigrants 8% 43% 23% 27% 6,450
 1986-1995 immigrants 9% 46% 23% 22% 4,440
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 4% 45% 19% 32% 1,100
 1996-2001 immigrants only 7% 22% 27% 44% 920
6 or more persons
Canadian-born 4% 31% 31% 33% 3,660
Earlier immigrants 3% 25% 35% 37% 1,300
Recent immigrants 0% 15% 27% 58% 1,840
 1986-1995 immigrants 0% 18% 30% 51% 1,070
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 0% 11% 24% 68% 560
 1996-2001 immigrants only 0% 13% 15% 75% 200

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household, crowding and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Housing costs similar in relation to income

Two in ten recent immigrant households spend more than 30% of their income on accommodations. This proportion is similar to the share of Canadian-born households that spends more than 30% of their income on accommodations.

Table F-3: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—cost of accommodations as a share of household income, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage distribution)
  Cost of accommodation
Households Less than 30% 30% to 50% 50% or more
Canadian-born 161,630 79% 25,090 12% 17,510 9%
Earlier immigrants 38,330 84% 4,720 10% 2,650 6%
Recent immigrants 12,910 81% 1,720 11% 1,350 8%
 1986-1995 immigrants 9,760 82% 1,200 10% 980 8%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others 1,770 84% 230 11% 130 6%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 1,390 72% 290 15% 240 12%
All households 214,530 79% 31,850 12% 22,300 8%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary. Totals do not add to 100% due to some non-reporting households.

Housing of very recent immigrants in slightly better repair

The dwellings of households of immigrants who landed after 1985 have been more recently built than the houses of Canadian-born.

Table F-4: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—period of construction of household dwelling, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Period of construction
Households Before 1971 1971-1990 1991-2001
Canadian-born 118,640 58% 73,160 36% 13,320 6%
Earlier immigrants 24,690 54% 18,200 40% 2,940 6%
Recent immigrants 9,390 52% 7,450 41% 1,210 7%
 1986-1995 immigrants 6,170 52% 4,880 41% 890 7%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 1,680 52% 1,320 41% 200 6%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 1,550 53% 1,240 43% 110 4%
All households 153,170 57% 99,320 37% 17,500 6%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

The state of repair of dwellings of recent and earlier immigrants is slightly better than that of the Canadian-born. This suggests that recent immigrants in Winnipeg do not resort to sub-standard accommodations to keep the cost of housing down.

Table F-5: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—quality of housing, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Quality of housing
Households Regular maintenance Minor repairs Major repairs
Canadian-born 125,300 61% 59,530 29% 20,290 10%
Earlier immigrants 29,580 65% 12,650 28% 3,580 8%
Recent immigrants 11,650 65% 4,870 27% 1,530 8%
 1986-1995 immigrants 7,450 62% 3,440 29% 1,080 9%
 1996-2001 immigrants with others 2,120 66% 850 27% 220 7%
 1996-2001 immigrants only 2,080 72% 590 20% 240 8%
All households 167,250 62% 77,280 29% 25,470 9%

Note: The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Home ownership relatively high

One in four households consisting only of very recent immigrants owns its home, compared to close to two in three Canadian-born households and other recent immigrant households.

Figure F-1: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—home ownership, by household type, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)

 

Figure F-1

Note: For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

Home-ownership is much higher among earlier immigrants than among the Canadian-born. This probably reflects the higher average age of earlier immigrants, but it may also point to different choices.

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