ARCHIVED – A literature review of Public Opinion Research on Canadian attitudes towards multiculturalism and immigration, 2006-2009

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Text version: Figure 1: Canada’s multicultural makeup is one of the best things about this country

In percentage
Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Disagree
43 39 10 6

(2007, Ipsos-Reid for CanWest/Global News, sample size: 1,002)

[End of text version – back to Canada’s multicultural makeup]

Text version: Figure 2: Multiculturalism

In percentage
Weakens national identity Strengthens national identity Don’t know / Not applicable
30 61 9

(2008, Strategic Counsel for Globe & Mail/CTV, sample size: 1,000 Canadians)

[End of text version – back to Multiculturalism]

Text version: Figure 5: Growing variety of ethnic and racial groups in Canada

In percentage
Very good Good Bad Very bad Not sure
14 43 19 10 12

(2008, Angus-Reid Strategies, sample size: 1,010, online)

[End of text version – back to Growing variety of ethnic and racial groups in Canada]

Text version: Figure 6: Your own point of view

In percentage
Having a multicultural blend of different cultures provides a richer, more tolerant society Too much diversity can weaken a society and it would be better if we all subscribed to the same values and culture Don’t know / Not applicable
64 31 5

[End of text version – back to Your own point of view]

(2009, EKOS for the CBC, sample size: 1,587, online)

Text version: Figure 7: Canada is changing too quickly

In percentage
Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Disagree Don’t know / Not applicable
17 22 32 27 2

(2007, Ipsos-Reid for CanWest/Global News, sample size: 1,002)

[End of text version – back to Canada is changing too quickly]

Text version: Figure 8: Variety of people with different religions

In percentage
Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree
27 48 19 6

(2006, Ipsos-Reid for CanWest/Global News, sample size: 7,787, online)

[End of text version – back to Variety of people with different religions]

Text version: Figure 9: 5 million citizens who are members of visible minorities

In percentage
Positive Negative Not sure Don’t know / Not applicable
48 9 42 2

(2008, Strategic Counsel for Globe & Mail/CTV, sample size: 1,000)

[End of text version – back to 5 million citizens who are members of visible minorities]

Text version: Figure 10: Visible minorities now comprise 16 percent of Canada

In percentage
Too small About right Too large Doesn’t matter Don’t know / Not applicable
10 22 9 55 4

(2008, Strategic Counsel for Globe & Mail/CTV, sample size: 1,000)

[End of text version – back to Visible minorities now comprise 16 percent of Canada]

Text version: Figure 11: Sharing customs and traditions

In percentage
Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Disagree
12 24 38 26

(2006, Ipsos-Reid for CanWest/Global News, sample size: 7,787, online)

[End of text version – back to Sharing customs and traditions]

Text version: Figure 12: Blending into Canadian society

In percentage
Population Should be free to maintain religious / cultural practices Should blend into Canadian society Both equally Depends / Don’t know / Not applicable
Total Population 49 40 9 2
Canadian Muslims 65 15 17 3

(2006, Environics Focus Canada 2006-4, Muslim sample size: 500; Can sample size: 2,045)

[End of text version – back to Blending into Canadian society]

Text version: Figure 13: Canada’s main aim

In percentage
Option 2005 2006
Don’t know / Not applicable 11 11
Maintain identity 20 19
Integrate 69 70

(2005 & 2006, Strategic Counsel for Globe & Mail/CTV, sample size: 1,000 per wave)

[End of text version – back to Canada’s main aim]

Text version: Figure 14: A higher priority for Canada

In percentage
To encourage minority groups to try to change to be more like most Canadians To encourage Canadians as a whole to try to accept minority groups and their customs and languages Don’t know / not applicable
57 38 5

(2007, Ipsos-Reid for CanWest/Global News, sample size: 1,002)

[End of text version – back to A higher priority for Canada]

Text version: Figure 15: Immigrants adopting Canadian values

Note: time points shown on the horizontal axis indicate when polls were conducted: durations of intervals between time points vary.

In percentage
Option 1993 1994 1997 1998 2000 2002 2003 2005 2006 2008
Agree / strongly agree 72 72 70 68 63 60 60 58 65 60
Disagree / strongly disagree 23 21 22 26 33 36 38 39 30 37

(1993-2008, Environics Focus Canada 2008-1, sample size 2008: 2,028)

[End of text version – back to Immigrants adopting Canadian values]

Text version: Figure 16: Immigrants’ fit into Canadian society

In percentage
Option 2000 2004
Agree / strongly agree 51 56
Disagree / strongly disagree 49 44

(Canadian Election Studies, sample size (Mailback survey): ~1,500 per election)

[End of text version – back to Immigrants’ fit into Canadian society]

Text version: Figure 17: Ease of imigrants integrating into Canadian society

In percentage
Very easily Somewhat easily Not very easily Not at all easily Don’t know / not applicable
7 44 36 10 4

(2007, Leger Marketing for Sun Media, sample size: 3,092, online)

[End of text version – back to Ease of imigrants integrating into Canadian society]

Text version: Figure 18: New Canadians: holding on to their customs and traditions?

In percentage
Hold on too long Integrate at an acceptable pace Don’t know / not applicable
45 47 8

(2008, Strategic Counsel for Globe & Mail/CTV, sample size: 1,000)

[End of text version – back to New Canadians: holding on to their customs and traditions?]

Text version: Figure 19: Canada/my community/my province: welcoming to members of visible minorities?

In percentage
Region Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Don’t know / not applicable
Canada 42 46 6 3 3
My community 37 44 8 5 7
My province 45 44 5 2 4

(2008, Strategic Counsel for Globe & Mail/CTV, sample size: 1,000)

In percentage
Region Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Don’t know / not applicable
My province: Quebec 34 58 5 2 1
My province: Rest of Canada 48 40 5 2 5

(2008, Strategic Counsel for Globe & Mail/CTV, sample size: 1,000)

[End of text version – back to Canada/my community/my province: welcoming to members of visible minorities?]

Text version: Figure 20: My city: welcoming to people of different cultures and backgrounds?

In percentage
City Strongly agree Somewhat agree Other
Vancouver 53 39 8
Calgary 43 43 14
Edmonton 46 44 10
Regina 44 42 14
Saskatoon 41 45 14
Winnipeg 51 39 10
Toronto 57 34 9

(2007, Canada West Foundation, sample size: 500 urban residents in each of Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Regina, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Toronto)

[End of text version – back to My city: welcoming to people of different cultures and backgrounds?]

Text version: Figure 21: Discrimination against visible minorities

In percentage
Strongly agree Moderately agree Moderately disagree Strongly disagree Don’t know / not applicable
17 36 29 16 2

(2007, Ipsos-Reid for CanWest/Global News, sample size: 1,002)

[End of text version – back to Discrimination against visible minorities]

Text version: Figure 22: Discrimination in Canadian society today – 2006/2010

In percentage
Group Often Sometimes Rarely Never Don’t know / Not applicable
Muslims 34 38 12 10 6
Pakistanis / East Indians 28 41 14 10 6
Blacks 20 43 20 12 5
Jews 13 37 27 17 7
Chinese 11 41 27 14 6
Aboriginal People 33 39 13 10 5
Francophones (outside Quebec) 9 37 28 17 9
Anglophones (inside Quebec) 11 32 24 26 7

(2006, Environics Focus Canada 2006-4, Can sample size: 2,045; 2010 CBC Omnibus by Environics, February-March, sample size: 2,002)

In percentage
Group Often Sometimes Rarely Never Don’t know / Not applicable
Muslims 44 32 12 8 4
Pakistanis / East Indians 36 37 14 9 4
Blacks 32 38 20 9 2
Jews 17 35 30 15 4
Chinese 13 34 34 16 3
Aboriginal People 42 32 15 9 3
Francophones (outside Quebec) 10 30 37 19 4
Anglophones (inside Quebec) 10 20 30 39 1

(2006, Environics Focus Canada 2006-4, Can sample size: 2,045; 2010 CBC Omnibus by Environics, February-March, sample size: 2,002)

[End of text version – back to Discrimination in Canadian society today – 2006/2010]

Text version: Figure 23: Favourable or unfavourable opinion of religions

Results may not add to 100 because of rounding

In percentage
Religion Very / moderately favourable Very / moderately unfavourable Not sure
Christianity 72 18 9
Islam 28 52 20
Hinduism 41 32 26
Sikhism 30 40 30
Buddhism 57 22 21
Judaism 53 27 20

(2009, Angus-Reid Strategies, sample size: 1,007, online)

[End of text version – back to Favourable or unfavourable opinion of religions]

Text version: Figure 24: Follower of any of these religions: acceptable or unacceptable?

In percentage
Religion Acceptable Unacceptable Not sure
Christianity 83 3 14
Islam 39 29 32
Hinduism 46 20 34
Sikhism 39 25 36
Buddhism 53 15 32
Judaism 56 13 31

(2009, Angus-Reid Strategies, sample size: 1,007, online)

[End of text version – back to Follower of any of these religions: acceptable or unacceptable?]

Text version: Figure 25: Minority groups need special rights

In percentage
Option 2000 2004 2008
Agree / agree strongly 18 17 16
Disagree/ disagree strongly 82 83 84

(Canadian Election Studies, sample size (Mailback survey): ~1,500 per election)

[End of text version – back to Minority groups need special rights]

Text version: Figure 26: Importance in democratic society

In percentage
Option 2000 2004 2008
Letting the majority decide 74 72 72
Protecting minorities 26 28 28

(Canadian Election Studies, sample size (Mailback survey): ~1,500 per election)

[End of text version – back to Importance in democratic society]

Text version: Figure 27: Pushing equal rights in this country

In percentage
Option 2000 2004 2008
Agree / agree strongly 40 40 38
Disagree / disagree strongly 60 60 62

(Canadian Election Studies, sample size (Mailback survey): ~1,500 per election)

[End of text version – back to Pushing equal rights in this country]

Text version: Figure 28: Canadians born in this country

In percentage
Option 2000 2004 2008
Agree / agree strongly 43 41 33
Disagree / disagree strongly 57 59 67

(Canadian Election Studies, sample size (Mailback survey): ~1,500 per election)

[End of text version – back to Canadians born in this country]

Text version: Figure 30: Providing public funding to faith-based schools

In percentage
Religion Strongly / moderately agree Strongly / moderately disagree Not sure
Christianity 41 51 8
Islam 15 75 9
Hinduism 16 73 11
Sikhism 14 75 11
Buddhism 19 70 11
Judaism 21 68 11

(2009, Angus-Reid Strategies, sample size: 1,007, online)

[End of text version – back to Providing public funding to faith-based schools]

Text version: Figure 31: View about accomodation and adaptation

In percentage
Option 2005 2006
Unsure 8 5
Agree with neither 21 13
Immigrants should adapt fully to culture in Canada 53 77
It is reasonable to accommodate religious and cultural minorities 18 5

(2007, SES Research for IRPP, sample size: 1,083, online)

[End of text version – back to View about accomodation and adaptation]

Text version: Figure 32: Reasonable Accommodation

In percentage
Option National (2008) National (2009) Quebec (2008) Quebec (2009)
Not sure 9 9 9 6
On some occasions, it makes sense to modify specific laws and norms to accomodate minorites 36 29 29 19
Laws and norms should not be modified to accomodate minorities 54 62 62 74

(2008, Angus Reid Strategies, 2008 sample size: 1,006 Canadians and 800* Quebec residents / 2009 sample size: 1,007 Canadians, online)

[End of text version – back to Reasonable Accommodation]

Text version: Figure 33: Cultural practices

In percentage
Option Wearing a kirpan to school Wearing a hijab in a soccer game Wearing a hijab to school Offering a different menu, for religious reasons, in school cafeterias 
Strongly disagree 73 47 42 38
Disagree 14 18 16 20
Agree 7 19 25 23
Strongly agree 3 8 11 11

(2009, CROP, Quebec only, sample size: 1,000)

[End of text version – back to Cultural practices]

Text version: Figure 34: Pushing bilingualism in Canada

In percentage
Option 2000 2004 2008
Agree / agree strongly 51 56 48
Disagree / disagree strongly 49 44 52

(Canadian Election Studies, sample size (Mailback survey): ~1,500 per election)

[End of text version – back to Pushing bilingualism in Canada]

Text version: Figure 35: Anglophones in Quebec and Francophones in the rest of Canada

In percentage
Option 2000 2004 2008
Agree / agree strongly 34 30 33
Disagree / disagree strongly 66 70 67

(Canadian Election Studies, sample size (Mailback survey): ~1,500 per election)

[End of text version – back to Anglophones in Quebec and Francophones in the rest of Canada]

Text version: Figure 36: Government services provided in only one language

In percentage
Option 2000 2004 2008
Agree / agree strongly 21 27 27
Disagree / disagree strongly 79 73 73

(Canadian Election Studies, sample size (Mailback survey): ~1,500 per election)

[End of text version – back to Government services provided in only one language]

Text version: Figure 37: In your opinion, do you feel there are too many, too few, or about the right number of immigrants coming to Canada?

In percentage
Options Jul 04 Oct 04 Dec 04 Mar 05 Jul 05 Oct 05 Nov 05 Mar 06 Nov 06 Mar 07 Jan 09
About right 49 51 49 50 52 52 48 49 48 55 50
Too many 31 30 29 27 31 28 30 26 28 27 26
Too few 14 16 18 17 13 16 15 18 15 13 14

(CIC Tracking Surveys, 2008-9 sample size: 1,203)

[End of text version – back to Number of immigrants coming to Canada]

Text version: Figure 38: Overall, there is too much immigration to Canada (strongly agree to strongly disagree, 4-point scale)

In percentage
Options Agree / agree strongly Disagree / disagree strongly
1977 61 35
1980 59 36
1983 69 27
1986 66 33
1987 65 32
1988 64 33
1989 57 40
1990 57 40
1991 62 36
1992 63 35
1993 70 26
1994 70 26
1997 67 30
1998 54 43
2000 45 54
2002 44 54
2003 38 61
2005 33 65
2006 37 60
2008 33 63

(Environics, Focus Canada 2008-1, sample size 2008: 2,028)

[End of text version – back to Too much immigration to Canada]

Text version: Figure 39: From what you can tell, do you think Canada accepts too many, too few or about the right number of immigrants per year?

In percentage
Options 2005 2006
Too few 10 10
About the right number 46 42
Too many 32 35

(2005, 2006, Strategic Counsel for Globe & Mail/CTV, sample size: 1,000 each wave)

[End of text version – back to Acceptable number of immigrants per year]

Text version: Figure 40: In total, approximately how many new immigrants do you think Canada allows into the country each year?

In percentage
Options November 2006 January 2009
Too few 12 12
About the right number 50 48
Too many 35 36

(CIC Tracking Survey, 2006 sample size: 1,200)

[End of text version – back to New immigrants Canada allows into the country each year]

Text version: Figure 41: Immigrants make an important contribution to this country (strongly agree to strong disagree, 4-point scale)

In percentage
Options 2000 2004 2008
Agree / agree strongly 82 84 85
Disagree / disagree strongly 18 16 15

(Canadian Election Studies, sample size (Mailback survey): ~1,500 per election)

[End of text version – back to Immigrants make a contribution to this country]

Text version: Figure 42: Immigration from other countries is good for [city] (strongly agree to strongly disagree, 4-point scale)

In percentage
City Strongly agree Somewhat agree Other
Vancouver 38 42 20
Calgary 45 38 17
Edmonton 38 46 16
Regina 49 39 12
Saskatoon 46 41 13
Winnipeg 49 41 10
Toronto 47 35 18

(2007, Canada West Foundation, sample size: 500 urban residents in each of Vanc, Calg, Edm, Reg, Sask, Winn, Tor)

[End of text version – back to Immigration is good for either of these cities]

Text version: Figure 43: In general, what effect does immigration to this country have on your community? (very positive to very negative, 5-point scale)

In percentage
Options Jul 04 Oct 04 Dec 04 Mar 05 Jul 05 Oct 05 Nov 05 Mar 06 Nov 06 Mar 07 Jan 09
Very / somewhat positive 52 55 52 55 53 53 57 57 53 59 50
Neither 30 27 29 27 29 28 25 24 28 25 32
Very / somewhat negative 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 11 15

(Focus Canada 2008-1, sample size 2008: 2,028)

[End of text version – back to Immigration’s effect on your community]

Text version: Figure 45: Overall, immigration has a positive impact on the economy of Canada (strongly agree to strongly disagree, 4-point scale)

In percentage
Options 1993 1998 2000 2002 2003 2005 2006 2008
Agree / strongly agree 56 62 75 76 83 81 78 82
Disagree / strongly disagree 39 32 23 22 16 17 18 15

(Focus Canada 2008-1, sample size 2008: 2,028)

[End of text version – back to Immigration’s impact on the economy of Canada]

Text version: Figure 46: Immigrants take away jobs from other Canadians (strongly agree to strongly disagree, 4-point scale)

In percentage
Options 1985 1989 1993 2002 2003 2005 2006 2008
Agree / strongly agree 36 49 56 49 54 44 31 26
Disagree / strongly disagree 54 48 41 49 43 52 68 72

(Focus Canada 2008-1, sample size 2008: 2,028)

[End of text version – back to Immigrants take away jobs from other Canadians]

Text version: Figure 48: Non-whites should not be allowed to immigrate to Canada (strongly agree to strongly disagree, 4-point scale)

In percentage
Options 1985 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1997 1998 2000 2002 2003 2005 2006 2008
Agree / strongly agree 7 13 11 9 8 11 9 9 7 7 6 5 5 7 5
Disagree / strongly disagree 89 83 85 87 89 86 90 88 91 93 93 94 94 91 92

(Focus Canada 2008-1, sample size 2008: 2,028)

[End of text version – back to Non-whites’ immigration to Canada]

Text version:Figure 50: Trusting people from various groups: People of another nationality

In percentage
Country Trust completely / a little Not trust very much / at all
Canada 77 23
Sweden 91 9
Norway 85 15
Great Britain 80 20
France 79 21
United States 75 25
Australia 75 25
Switzerland 74 26
Finland 72 29
Argentina 59 41
Georgia 58 42
Trinidad and Tobago 58 43
Uruguay 56 44
Spain 49 51
South Africa 49 51
Serbia 49 51
Ukraine 46 54
Poland 46 54
Italy 44 56
Bulgaria 44 56
Netherlands 42 58
Russian Federation 40 60
Ghana 36 64
Moldova 36 64
India 34 66
Indonesia 32 68
Taiwan 31 69
Chile 30 70
Jordan 30 70
Romania 29 71
Colombia 29 71
Cyprus 29 71
Slovenia 29 71
Turkey 27 73
South Korea 27 73
Brazil 27 73
Mexico 26 74
Thailand 23 77
Egypt 21 79
Morocco 21 79
Viet Nam 18 82
Peru 17 83
China 13 87

(2005-2008, World Values Survey)

[End of text version – back to Trusting people from various groups: People of another nationality]

Text version:Figure 51: Trusting people from various groups: People of another religion

In percentage
Country Trust completely / a little Not trust very much / at all
Canada 80 20
Sweden 89 11
Great Britain 81 19
United States 80 21
Norway 80 20
France 78 22
Finland 77 23
Andorra 76 24
Australia 73 27
Switzerland 71 29
Mali 68 32
Rwanda 67 33
South Africa 63 37
Trinidad and Tobago 63 37
Argentina 63 37
Uruguay 57 43
Burkina Faso 55 45
Ghana 53 47
Brazil 50 50
Poland 49 51
Spain 47 53
Taiwan 47 53
Serbia 47 53
Netherlands 46 54
India 45 55
Bulgaria 45 55
Germany 43 57
South Korea 42 58
Italy 41 59
Indonesia 40 60
Ethiopia 40 60
Zambia 40 61
Egypt 39 61
Georgia 39 61
Ukraine 39 61
Chile 37 63
Colombia 37 63
Russian Federation 36 64
Malaysia 36 64
Mexico 32 68
Jordan 32 68
Romania 31 70
Thailand 29 71
Turkey 28 72
Slovenia 28 72
Viet Nam 28 72
Cyprus 28 72
Moldova 26 74
Peru 26 75
Morocco 23 77
China 18 83

(2005-2008, World Values Survey)

[End of text version – back to Trusting people from various groups: People of another religion]

Text version:Figure 52: Hostility toward Muslims

In percentage
Population Canada Great Britain France Spain Germany
Muslims 17 42 39 31 51
Pop-at-large 28 40 56 60 63

(2006, Focus Canada 2006-4, Muslim sample size: 500; Can sample size: 2,045; International data from 2005 Pew Global Attitudes Survey)

[End of text version – back to Hostility toward Muslims]

Text version:Figure 53: Banning the wearing of headscarves by Muslim women in public places, and schools

In percentage
Population Canada
Canadian Muslims 9
All Canada 36
Quebec 53
France 78
Germany 54
Spain 43
Britain 29
(2006, Focus Canada 2006-4, Muslim sample size: 500; Can sample size: 2,045; International data from 2005 Pew Global Attitudes Survey)

[End of text version – back to Banning the wearing of headscarves by Muslim women in public places, and schools]

Text version:Figure 54: Bad experience due to your race, ethnicity, or religion

In percentage
Population Canada
Canada 31
Britain 28
France 37
Spain 25
Germany 19

(2006, Focus Canada 2006-4, sample size (Muslims only): 500; International data from 2005 Pew Global Attitudes Survey)

[End of text version – back to Bad experience due to your race, ethnicity, or religion]

Text version:Figure 55: Adopting the customs of my country

In percentage
Population Very Important Rather Important Not Important
Canada 58 32 10
Sweden 24 44 32
Brazil 26 61 13
South Korea 27 58 15
Andorra 30 53 17
Serbia 34 47 20
Argentina 34 47 20
Italy 35 40 26
Poland 35 48 17
Romania 36 39 25
Norway 37 42 21
Moldova 39 48 13
Ukraine 40 45 15
Taiwan 40 46 14
Switzerland 42 47 11
Trinidad and Tobago 43 33 24
Cyprus 43 35 22
Uruguay 43 39 17
China 44 41 15
Finland 47 46 7
Rwanda 47 48 5
Spain 47 42 11
Slovenia 48 39 13
Chile 50 34 16
Bulgaria 53 33 14
Germany 53 38 9
Ethiopia 54 37 9
Zambia 57 29 15
Mexico 58 30 12
India 58 27 14
United States 59 32 9
South Africa 59 28 13
Burkina Faso 59 27 14
Malaysia 60 37 2
Indonesia 62 28 10
Jordan 62 23 15
Viet Nam 63 31 5
Turkey 64 27 10
Thailand 65 32 3
Ghana 67 24 10
Australia 68 26 6
Morocco 68 25 7
Egypt 69 22 9
Mali 73 20 7
Georgia 84 14 2

(2005-2008 World Values Survey)

[End of text version – back to Adopting the customs of my country]

 

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