The humanitarian and compassionate assessment: Former Canadian citizens or permanent residents

This section contains policy, procedures and guidance used by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada staff. It is posted on the Department’s website as a courtesy to stakeholders.

Applies to

  • in Canada
  • overseas

See also Restrictions on examination of H&C applications.

Former Canadian citizens or former permanent residents may request permanent resident status on H&C grounds. As with all applications, cases involving former Canadian citizens or permanent residents must be considered on their individual merit.

Although not exhaustive, the following guidelines may be helpful:

  1. Ensure that the applicant:
    • was a Canadian citizen and has lost their citizenship. If necessary confirm loss of citizenship with CPC Sydney. Include in the request the applicant’s name, date and country of birth
    • was a permanent resident and has lost that status.  If necesary confirm loss of permanent residence
    • has exhausted all their options before requesting H&C.
  2. If the applicant is not a Canadian citizen and has exhausted other options then consider the following factors:
    • why and how the applicant lost their Canadian citizenship or permanent resident status and determine if they would have lost it under the present Act
    • the hardship that the applicant would experience if the application is refused
    • the situation of family members in Canada
    • whether there are strong cultural and/or emotional ties to Canada
    • whether there are close relatives, friends and support in another country
    • whether there is a degree of establishment in Canada.

For more information about citizenship see:

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